Back to Journals » International Journal of General Medicine » Volume 12

Dyslipidemia in diabetes: a population-based study in Bali

Authors Suastika K, Semadi IMS, Dwipayana IMP, Saraswati MR, Gotera W, Budhiarta AAG, Matsumoto K, Kajiwara N, Taniguchi H

Received 13 May 2019

Accepted for publication 15 August 2019

Published 2 September 2019 Volume 2019:12 Pages 313—321

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S215548

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Amy Norman

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Scott Fraser


Ketut Suastika,1 I Made Siswadi Semadi,1 I Made Pande Dwipayana,1 Made Ratna Saraswati,1 Wira Gotera,1 Anak Agung Gde Budhiarta,1 Kinuyo Matsumoto,2 Naemi Kajiwara,2 Hiroshi Taniguchi3

1Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Udayana University/Sanglah Hospital, Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia; 2Graduate School of Life Science, Kobe Women’s University, Kobe, Japan; 3Department of Diabetology, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Kobe University, Kobe, Japan

Correspondence: Ketut Suastika
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Udayana University/Sanglah Hospital, Jalan Kamboja, Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia
Tel +62 81 138 0916
Email ksuas@unud.ac.id

Purpose: To establish the lipid pattern in subjects with diabetes mellitus (DM) and factors that are correlated with insulin resistance and lipid disorders in a population of Bali.
Methods: A cross-sectional population-based study which enrolled 1840 subjects (age 13–100 years) from 7 villages was carried out. Several clinical parameters were measured including age, gender, body mass index, waist circumference (WC), fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein (apo) A (apoA), apoB, non-HDL-C, T/HDL-C ratio, LDL-C/apoB ratio, apoB/A ratio, plasma insulin, and homeostasis of model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR).
Results: TC, TG, and non-HDL-C levels were higher in DM subjects than in normal glucose tolerance (NGT) subjects in both genders; total/HDL-C ratio was higher in subjects with DM than in NGT subjects only in men; LDL-C levels, apoB levels, and apoB/A ratios were higher and LDL/apoB was lower in subjects with DM than in NGT in women. In subjects with DM, the target for LDL-C (79%), non-HDL-C (85.2%), apoB (80%), HDL-C (34.9%), TG (46.7%), and small-dense low density lipoprotein (42.2%) was not achieved.
Conclusion: FBG was correlated with TC, TG, LDL-C, apoB, non-HDL-C levels, LDL/apoB, and apoB/apoA ratios. Subjects with DM had higher levels of TC, TG, and non-HDL-C levels in both genders; T/HDL-C ratio only in men; LDL-C, apoB/apoA ratio and lower LDL/apoB ratio only in women. Obesity was correlated with lipid levels. WC was correlated with LDL/apoB ratio, insulin level, HOMA-IR, and TG; highest absolute strength of correlation was with LDL/apoB ratio. Insulin resistance was correlated with lipid levels or ratios, especially in women. In women, HOMA-IR had a positive correlation with total/HDL-C ratio, non-HDL-C, apoB, and a negative correlation with HDL-C levels.

Keywords: HOMA-IR, dyslipidemia, diabetes

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]