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Doxorubicin (DOX) Gadolinium–Gold-Complex: A New Way to Tune Hybrid Nanorods as Theranostic Agent

Authors Khan M, Boumati S, Arib C, Thierno Diallo A, Djaker N, Doan BT, Spadavecchia J

Received 9 December 2020

Accepted for publication 6 February 2021

Published 17 March 2021 Volume 2021:16 Pages 2219—2236

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S295809

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 4

Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Thomas J. Webster


Memona Khan,1 Sarah Boumati,2 Celia Arib,1 Amadou Thierno Diallo,1 Nadia Djaker,1 Bich-thuy Doan,2 Jolanda Spadavecchia1

1CNRS, UMR 7244, CSPBAT, Laboratoire de Chimie, Structures et Propriétés de Biomatériaux et d’Agents Thérapeutiques, Université Sorbonne Paris Nord, Bobigny, 93000, France; 2CNRS UMR 8060, iCLeHS, Synthèse, Electrochimie, Imagerie et Systèmes Analytiques Pour le Diagnostic SEISAD, Chimie ParisTech, Université PSL, Paris, 75231, France

Correspondence: Bich-thuy Doan
CNRS, UMR 8060, iCLeHS, Synthèse, Electrochimie, Imagerie et Systèmes Analytiques Pour le Diagnostic SEISAD, Chimie ParisTech, PSL University, 11 Rue Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris Cedex 05, Paris, 75231, France
Email [email protected]
Jolanda Spadavecchia
CNRS, UMR 7244, CSPBAT, Laboratoire de Chimie, Structures et Propriétés de Biomatériaux et d’Agents Thérapeutiques, Sorbonne Paris Nord University, 1 rue chablis, Bobigny, 93000, France
Email [email protected]

Introduction: In this paper, we have designed and formulated, a novel synthesis of doxorubicin (DOX) loaded bimetallic gold nanorods in which gold salt (HAuCl4) is chelated with anthracycline (DOX), diacid polyethylene-glycol (PEG-COOH) and gadolinium salt (GdCl3 * 6 H2O) to form DOX IN-Gd-AuNRs compared with DOX ON-Gd-AuNRs in which the drug was grafted onto the bimetallic pegylated nanoparticle surface by electrostatic adsorption.
Material and Method: The physical and chemical evaluation was performed by spectroscopic analytical techniques (Raman spectroscopy, UV-Visible and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)). Magnetic features at 7T were also measured. Photothermal abilities were assessed. Cytotoxicity studies on MIA PaCa-2, human pancreatic carcinoma and TIB-75 hepatocytes cell lines were carried out to evaluate their biocompatibility and showed a 320 fold higher efficiency for DOX after encapsulation.
Results: Exhaustive physicochemical characterization studies were conducted showing a mid size of 20 to 40 nm diameters obtained with low polydispersity, efficient synthesis using seed mediated synthesis with chelation reaction with high scale-up, long duration stability, specific doxorubicin release with acidic pH, strong photothermal abilities at 808 nm in the NIR transparency window, strong magnetic r1 relaxivities for positive MRI, well adapted for image guided therapy and therapeutical purpose in biological tissues.
Conclusion: In this paper, we have developed a novel theranostic nanoparticle composed of gadolinium complexes to gold ions, with a PEG biopolymer matrix conjugated with antitumoral doxorubicin, providing multifunctional therapeutic features. Particularly, these nano conjugates enhanced the cytotoxicity toward tumoral MIAPaCa-2 cells by a factor of 320 compared to doxorubicin alone. Moreover, MRI T1 features at 7T enables interesting positive contrast for bioimaging and their adapted size for potential passive targeting to tumors by Enhanced Permeability Retention. Given these encouraging antitumoral and imaging properties, this bimetallic theranostic nanomaterial system represents a veritable promise as a therapeutic entity in the field of medicinal applications.

Keywords: hybrid nanorods, doxorubicin, MRI, MIAPaCa-2 cells, hyperthermia

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