Direct and Indirect Costs of Infectious Conjunctivitis in a Commercially Insured Population in the United States
Received 5 October 2019
Accepted for publication 20 December 2019
Published 11 February 2020 Volume 2020:14 Pages 377—387
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Scott Fraser
Jay S Pepose,1,2 Sujata P Sarda,3 Wendy Y Cheng,4 Nora McCormick,4 Hoi Ching Cheung,4 Priyanka Bobbili,4 Corey Joseph,3 Mei Sheng Duh4
1Pepose Vision Institute, Chesterfield, MO, USA; 2Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA; 3Shire, A Takeda Company, Lexington, MA, USA; 4Analysis Group, Inc., Boston, MA, USA
Correspondence: Sujata P Sarda
Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited, 55 Hayden Avenue, Lexington, MA 02421, USA
Tel +1 781 266-3440
Purpose: To assess the direct and indirect costs of infectious conjunctivitis and quantify medical costs due to conjunctivitis transmission in families.
Methods: In this retrospective claims analysis from the OptumHealth Care Solutions, Inc. database (1998– 2016), beneficiaries with or without at least one diagnosis of infectious conjunctivitis were identified. Direct and indirect costs (in 2016 US$) during the 60 days post conjunctivitis diagnosis (or imputed date for controls) were compared using cost differences in linear regressions. For transmission cost analysis, the total cost of each conjunctivitis episode was the sum of the primary episode (seed patient) and the secondary episode (infected family members) costs. A generalized estimating equation model adjusted for seed patient characteristics was used to assess the impact of number and rate of transmissions on episode cost.
Results: Health care resource utilization and direct costs were significantly higher for patients with conjunctivitis (n=1,002,188) versus controls (n=4,877,210): 1.67 all-cause visits per person per month (PPPM) versus 0.79 visits PPPM, respectively; total mean direct cost of $396.04 PPPM versus $289.63 PPPM, respectively. The cost of medically related absenteeism was $105.42 (95% confidence interval [CI], $104.18–$106.75) higher for patients with conjunctivitis than for controls. Episode cost, without transmission due to seed patient, was $669.43 (95% CI, $654.67–$684.85); it increased with each additional infected family member and with increased infection transmission time between family members.
Conclusion: Conjunctivitis was associated with a notable economic burden in terms of direct medical costs and medically related absenteeism. Family health care costs increased with transmission time and with each family member infected with conjunctivitis.
Keywords: infectious conjunctivitis, costs, charges, health care resource utilization, vector transmission
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