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Dietary gluten and the development of celiac disease and type 1 diabetes

Authors Ciacci C, Zingone F

Received 22 August 2015

Accepted for publication 16 February 2016

Published 21 April 2016 Volume 2016:8 Pages 51—56

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/NDS.S74713

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Lucy Goodman

Peer reviewer comments 4

Editor who approved publication: Dr Chandrika Piyathilake

Carolina Ciacci, Fabiana Zingone

Department of Medicine and Surgery, Celiac Center, University of Salerno, Fisciano, Italy

Abstract: The objective of this study was to perform a review of the present knowledge on the epidemiology and pathogenesis of the association between celiac disease (CD) and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Results from this review show that the estimated prevalence rate of CD in T1DM ranges from 4% to 11.5%, which seems higher in children than in adults, while there is no sex predominance in the prevalence of CD in T1DM. On the basis of the previous literature, screening for CD should be considered at diabetes diagnosis in all subjects and again within 2 and 5 years after diagnosis, even in the absence of symptoms. The anti-islet antibodies detection test, instead, is not recommended in CD, just as in the general population, except for CD patients having a relative with T1DM. Both genes and environmental factors seem to play a role in this association. HLADQ2 has been found to be the most frequent allele in the patients with both CD and T1DM, while gluten may be considered the trigger that induces the production of autoantibodies and the development, in genetically predisposed individuals, of both diseases.

Keywords: diabetes, celiac disease, genetics, environmental, epidemiological

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