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Diagnosing bluetongue virus in domestic ruminants: current perspectives

Authors Rojas JM, Rodríguez-Martín D, Martín V, Sevilla N

Received 15 October 2018

Accepted for publication 31 December 2018

Published 14 February 2019 Volume 2019:10 Pages 17—27


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Young Lyoo

José M Rojas, Daniel Rodríguez-Martín, Verónica Martín, Noemí Sevilla

Centro de Investigación en Sanidad Animal (CISA-INIA), Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria, Valdeolmos, Madrid, Spain

Abstract:This review provides an overview of current and potential new diagnostic techniques against bluetongue virus (BTV), an Orbivirus transmitted by arthropods that affects ruminants. Bluetongue is a disease currently notifiable to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), causing great economic losses due to decreased trade associated with bluetongue outbreaks and high mortality and morbidity. BTV cross-reacts with many antigenically related viruses including viruses that causes African Horse sickness and epizootic ­haemorrhagic disease of deer. Therefore, reliable diagnostic approaches to detect BTV among these other antigenically related viruses are used or being developed. The antigenic determinant for differentiation of virus species/serogroups among orbiviruses is the VP7 protein, meanwhile VP2 is serotype specific. Serologically, assays are established in many laboratories, based mainly on competitive ELISA or serum neutralization assay (virus neutralization assay [VNT]) although new techniques are being developed. Virus isolation from blood or semen is, additionally, another means of BTV diagnosis. Nevertheless, most of these techniques for viral isolation are time-consuming and expensive. Currently, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) panels or real-time RT-PCR are widely used methods although next-generation sequencing remains of interest for future virus diagnosis.

Keywords: bluetongue virus, diagnostic tests, virus isolation, serological tools

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