Diagnosing Alpha-1-Antitrypsin Deficiency Using A PCR/Luminescence-Based Technology
Received 22 July 2019
Accepted for publication 21 October 2019
Published 18 November 2019 Volume 2019:14 Pages 2535—2542
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Dr Richard Russell
Martina Veith,1 Andreas Klemmer,1 Iker Anton,2 Rachid El Hamss,2 Noelia Rapun,2 Sabina Janciauskiene,3 Viktor Kotke,1 Christian Herr,4 Robert Bals,4 Claus Franz Vogelmeier,1 Timm Greulich1
1Department of Medicine, Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Member of the German Center for Lung Research Marburg, University Medical Center Giessen And Marburg, Germany; 2Progenika Biopharma, S.A. A Grifols Company, Derio, Bizkaia, Spain; 3Department of Respiratory Medicine, Member of the German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Hannover Medical School, Biomedical Research in End Stage and Obstructive Lung Disease Hannover (BREATH), Hannover 30625, Germany; 4Department of Internal Medicine V, Pulmonology, Allergology, Respiratory and Intensive Care Medicine, Saarland Hospital, Homburg/Saar, Germany
Correspondence: Martina Veith
Department of Medicine, Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Member of the German Center for Lung Research Marburg, University Medical Center Giessen and Marburg, Germany Tel +49 642 1586 4723
Fax +49 642 158 6370
Purpose: Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is a rare hereditary condition resulting from the mutations in the SERPINA1 (serine protease inhibitor) gene and is characterized by low circulating levels of the alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) protein. The traditional algorithm for laboratory testing of AATD involves the analysis of AAT concentrations (nephelometry), phenotyping (isoelectric focusing, IEF), and genotyping (polymerase chain reaction, PCR); in selected cases, full sequencing of the SERPINA1 gene can be undertaken. New technologies arise that may make diagnosis easier and faster.
Methods: We developed and evaluated a new diagnostic algorithm based on Luminex xMAP (multi-analyte profiling) technology using Progenika A1AT Genotyping Test. In an initial learning phase, 1979 samples from individuals suspected of having AATD were examined by both, a traditional and a “new” algorithm. In a second phase, 1133 samples were analyzed with the Luminex xMAP only.
Results: By introducing a Luminex xMAP based algorithm, we were able to simultaneously identify 14 mutations in SERPINA1 gene (instead of two- S and Z-by using our old algorithm). Although the quantity of IEF assays remained unchanged, the nephelometric measurements and sequencing were reduced by 79% and 63.4%, respectively.
Conclusion: The new method is convenient, fast and user-friendly. The application of the Luminex xMAP technology can simplify and shorten the diagnostic workup of patients with suspected AATD.
Keywords: SERPINA1, diagnosis, Luminex xMAP technology, mutations
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