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Diabetes mellitus and risk factors in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals at Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia

Authors Eshete Mohammed A, Shenkute TY, Gebisa WC

Received 31 December 2014

Accepted for publication 17 February 2015

Published 15 April 2015 Volume 2015:8 Pages 197—206


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Ming-Hui Zou

Abdurehman Eshete Mohammed, Tilahun Yemane Shenkute, Waqtola Cheneke Gebisa

Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences and Pathology, College of Health Sciences, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia

Background: Globally, diabetes is rising dramatically causing high health burden in low- and middle-income countries. It is estimated that about 382 million people had diabetes in 2013. In 2013, diabetes caused 5.1 million deaths globally. Almost 80% of diabetes deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries.
Purpose: To assess the magnitude of diabetes mellitus (DM) and associated risk factors in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals.
Methods: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May 2014 at Jimma University Specialized Hospital. Convenient sampling technique was implemented. Sociodemographic and anthropometric data were collected by senior clinical nurses. Venous blood was collected from each study participant. Serum glucose and lipid profile of the study participants was measured using HumaStar 80 spectrophotometer. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were utilized.
Results: A total of 393 HIV-infected individuals of age ranging from 21 years to 75 years had enrolled in this study. The overall prevalence of DM in this study was 6.4% (n=25). Two hundred and ninety-one (74%) and 77 (19.6%) of the study participants had normal (70–110 mg/dL) and impaired (111–125 mg/dL) fasting blood glucose values, respectively. After adjusting for the other variables, age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =4.812, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.668–13.881, P=0.004), duration of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) (AOR =26.928, 95% CI: 3.722–194.822, P=0.001), hypertension (AOR =4.779, 95% CI: 1.646–13.874, P=0.004), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (AOR =5.669, 95% CI: 1.849–17.382, P=0.004) were significantly associated with DM.
Conclusion: HAART may have an impact on the cause of diabetes. Hence, HIV-infected individuals should be screened for diabetes, both before and after initiation of HAART.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, human immunodeficiency virus, Jimma, Ethiopia

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