Development of controlled release silicone adhesive–based mupirocin patch demonstrates antibacterial activity on live rat skin against Staphylococcus aureus
Authors David SR, Malek N, Mahadi AH, Chakravarthi S, Rajabalaya R
Received 16 July 2017
Accepted for publication 21 November 2017
Published 8 March 2018 Volume 2018:12 Pages 481—494
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Amy Norman
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Sukesh Voruganti
Sheba R David,1 Nurafiqah Malek,1 Abdul Hanif Mahadi,2 Srikumar Chakravarthi,3 Rajan Rajabalaya1
1PAPRSB Institute of Health Sciences, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Darussalam; 2Centre for Advanced Material and Energy Sciences (CAMES), Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Darussalam; 3School of Medicine, Perdana University, Jalan MAEPS Perdana, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
Background: Peritonitis is the most serious complication of peritoneal dialysis. Staphylococcus aureus infections could lead to peritonitis which causes reversal of peritoneal dialysis treatment back to hemodialysis. The aim of this study was to develop a controlled release silicone adhesive-based mupirocin patch for prophylactic effect and analyze its antibacterial effectiveness against S. aureus.
Methods: The matrix patches were prepared by using different polymers, with and without silicone adhesive, dibutyl sebacate and mupirocin. The patches were characterized for mechanical properties, drug content, moisture content, water absorption capacity and Fourier transform infrared spectrum. In vitro release studies were performed by using Franz diffusion cell. In vitro disk diffusion assay was performed on the Mueller–Hinton Agar plate to measure the zone of inhibition of the patches. The in vivo study was performed on four groups of rats with bacterial counts at three different time intervals, along with skin irritancy and histopathologic studies.
Results: The patches showed appropriate average thickness (0.63–1.12 mm), tensile strength (5.08–10.08 MPa) and modulus of elasticity (21.53–42.19 MPa). The drug content ranged from 94.5% to 97.4%, while the moisture content and water absorption capacities at two relative humidities (75% and 93%) were in the range of 1.082–3.139 and 1.287–4.148 wt%, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectra showed that there were no significant interactions between the polymer and the drug. The highest percentage of drug release at 8 hours was 47.94%. The highest zone of inhibition obtained was 28.3 mm against S. aureus. The in vivo studies showed that the bacterial colonies were fewer at 1 cm (7×101 CFU/mL) than at 2 cm (1.3×102 CFU/mL) over a 24-hour period. The patches were nonirritant to the skin, and histopathologic results also showed no toxic or damaging effects to the skin.
Conclusion: The in vitro and in vivo studies indicated that controlled release patches reduced the migration of S. aureus on the live rat skin effectively, however, a longer duration of study is required to determine the effectiveness of the patch on a suitable peritonitis-induced animal model.
Keywords: transdermal delivery, matrix patch, peritonitis, antibacterial, dialysis infection, histopathology
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