Development and Characterization of PLGA Nanoparticle-Laden Hydrogels for Sustained Ocular Delivery of Norfloxacin in the Treatment of Pseudomonas Keratitis: An Experimental Study
Received 23 November 2020
Accepted for publication 19 January 2021
Published 5 February 2021 Volume 2021:15 Pages 399—418
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Dr Anastasios Lymperopoulos
Rana M Gebreel,1 Noha A Edris,2 Hala M Elmofty,2 Mina I Tadros,3,4 Mohamed A El-Nabarawi,3 Doaa H Hassan1
1Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Manufacturing, Misr University for Science and Technology, Giza, Egypt; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt; 3Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt; 4Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy and Drug Technology, Egyptian Chinese University, Cairo, Egypt
Correspondence: Mina I Tadros Tel +20 1223620458
Fax +20 223628246
Aim: Norfloxacin (NFX) has low ocular bioavailability. The current work aimed to develop NFX-loaded nanoparticle (NP)-laden hydrogels to improve the ocular potential of NFX, minimize the need for frequent instillations and lower undesirable side effects.
Methods: NFX-loaded NPs were developed via the double-emulsion/solvent evaporation technique, according to 21 .41 full factorial design, using two types of polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) polymer and four (drug: polymer) ratios. NPs were evaluated for particle size (PS), polydispersity index (PDI), zeta potential (ZP), drug entrapment efficiency percentage (EE%), drug percentage released after 30 min (Q30min) and 12 hours (Q12h), drug percentage permeated through goat corneas after 30 min (P30min) and 12 hours (P12h) and morphology. Two formulae were statistically selected and incorporated into hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)-based hydrogels; G1 – G4. The latter systems were evaluated for appearance, clarity, pH, spreadability, rheology, drug percentages released, drug percentages permeated, antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and histopathological changes.
Results: The selected NPs (NP2 and NP6) were spherical in shape and possessed suitable PS (392.02 nm and 190.51 nm) and PDI (0.17 and 0.18), high magnitude of ZP (− 30.43 mV and − 33.62 mV), high EE% (79.24% and 91.72%), low Q30min (10.96% and 16.65%) and P30min (17.39% and 21.05%) and promising Q12h (58.23% and 71.20%) and P12h (53.31% and 65.01%), respectively. Clear, spreadable, tolerable, pseudoplastic, and thixotropic HPMC-based hydrogels were developed. They showed more prolonged drug release and drug permeation profiles. NP2- and NP6-laden hydrogels (G3 and G4 systems, respectively) had promising antibacterial activity, and reasonable histopathological safety.
Conclusion: G3 and G4 are potential ocular delivery systems for NFX.
Keywords: norfloxacin, nanoparticles, PLGA, ocular delivery, Pseudomonas keratitis
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