Determinants of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Southern Ethiopia: A Case–Control Study
Received 2 April 2020
Accepted for publication 1 June 2020
Published 16 June 2020 Volume 2020:13 Pages 1823—1829
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Professor Suresh Antony
Daniel Biru,1 Endrias Markos Woldesemayat2
1UNICEF Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 2Hawassa University, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Hawassa, Ethiopia
Correspondence: Endrias Markos Woldesemayat
Hawassa University, School of Public Health, Hawassa, Ethiopia
Background: In most developing countries, including in Ethiopia, the magnitude and risk factors of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) are expected to be high. However, this is not well reported because of lack of laboratory facilities, poor surveillance system and limited reporting. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors of DR-TB among TB patients in southern Ethiopia.
Patients and Methods: Facility-based case–control study was conducted from November 2016 to January 2017 in Sidama Zone and Gurage Zone of the southern Ethiopia region. DR-TB cases were confirmed by drug-susceptibility testing who were on treatment for DR-TB at Yirgalem and Butajira Hospitals. Controls were smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients who were taking first-line anti-TB medications and sputum smear-negative at the 5th month of commencing TB treatment. Data were entered and cleaned using EPI-Info version 7 software and analyzed using SPSS version 22 statistical software.
Results: A total of 84 cases and 243 controls participated in the study. About 59% (49 cases) and 55% (132 controls) were male. The median (interquartile range) age was 28 (21– 37) years for cases and 27 (25– 33) years for controls. Living in a one-roomed house (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 6.8, 95% CI: 1.8– 25.8), history of contact with DR-TB cases (AOR: 6.8, 95% CI: 1.8– 25.3), treatment failure TB cases (AOR: 4.2, 95% CI: 1.1– 15.5) and relapsed TB cases (AOR: 4.8, 95% CI: 1.3– 18.1) were independent factors associated with DR-TB.
Conclusion: Providing standardized first-line regimen for new case and retreatment TB cases and practicing basic TB-infection control measures could help to minimize the spread of DR-TB.
Keywords: drug resistance, tuberculosis, southern Ethiopia
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