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Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of novel EF24 and EF31 analogs as potential IκB kinase β inhibitors for the treatment of pancreatic cancer

Authors Xie X, Tu J, You H, Hu B

Received 25 January 2017

Accepted for publication 5 April 2017

Published 12 May 2017 Volume 2017:11 Pages 1439—1451

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/DDDT.S133172

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Venkateshwar Madka

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Manfred Ogris

Xuemeng Xie, Jinfu Tu, Heyi You, Bingren Hu

Department of Laparoscopic Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China

Abstract: Given the important role that inhibitory kappa B (IκB) kinase β (IKKβ) plays in pancreatic cancer (PC) development and progression, inhibitors targeting IKKβ are believed to be increasingly popular as novel anti-PC therapies. Two synthetic molecules, named EF24 and EF31, exhibited favorable potential in terms of inhibition of both IKKβ activity and PC cell proliferation. Aiming to enhance their cellular efficacy and to analyze their structure–activity relationship, four series of EF24 and EF31 analogs were designed and synthesized. Through kinase activity and vitality screening of cancer cells, D6 displayed excellent inhibition of both IKKβ activity and PC cell proliferation. Additionally, multiple biological evaluations showed that D6 was directly bound to IKKβ and significantly suppressed the activation of the IKKβ/nuclear factor κB pathway induced by tumor necrosis factor-α, as well as effectively inducing cancer cell apoptosis. Moreover, molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation analysis indicated that the dominant force between D6 and IKKβ comprised hydrophobic interactions. In conclusion, D6 may be a promising therapeutic agent for PC treatment and it also provides a structural lead for the design of novel IKKβ inhibitors.

Keywords: anti-pancreatic cancer activity, IκB kinase β, molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulation

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