Back to Journals » Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment » Volume 14

Depression, anxiety, and stress and their association with khat use: a cross-sectional study among Jazan University students, Saudi Arabia

Authors Al Bahhawi T, Albasheer OB, Makeen AM, Arishi AM, Hakami OM, Maashi SM, Al-Khairat HK, Alganmy OM, Sahal YA, Sharif AA, Mahfouz MS

Received 5 August 2018

Accepted for publication 26 September 2018

Published 17 October 2018 Volume 2018:14 Pages 2755—2761


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Roger Pinder

Tariq Al Bahhawi,1 Osama B Albasheer,1 Anwar M Makeen,1 Abdulelah Mohammed Arishi,2 Othman Mohammed Hakami,2 Sultan Mohsen Maashi,2 Hamood Khairat Al-Khairat,2 Omar Madiny Alganmy,2 Yasir Adnan Sahal,2 Abdulaziz Aaref Sharif,2 Mohamed Salih Mahfouz1

1Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Jazan University, Jazan, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2Faculty of Medicine, Jazan University, Jazan, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Background: Depression, anxiety, and stress levels are considered important indicators for mental health. Khat chewing habit is prevalent among all segments of Jazan population in Saudi Arabia. Few studies have been conducted to evaluate depression, anxiety, and stress among Jazan University students, and information about the correlation between khat use and these disorders is scarce. Thus, this study aims to evaluate the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress and their correlation with khat chewing and other risk factors among Jazan University students.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 642 students from Jazan University. Multistage sampling was used, with probability proportional to size-sampling technique. The Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale 21 questionnaire was used to collect the data, which were analyzed using SPSS Version 20.0 software.
Results: Moderate depression was prevalent among 53.6% of the sample, anxiety was found among 65.7%, while 34.3% of the students suffered from stress. Female gender was strongly associated with higher mean scores for symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress, with P-values <0.05 for all. Moreover, anxiety symptoms scores were statistically associated with grade point average and caffeine consumption. Khat use was statistically associated with higher mean scores of anxiety among males and a higher mean score of depression and anxiety among females.
Conclusion: The results indicate a high rate of symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress among Jazan University students. Khat use was associated with anxiety, and a higher rate of symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress was indicated among female students. Therefore, strategy for the prevention and management of depression, anxiety, and stress is highly recommended to minimize the impact of these serious disorders.

Keywords: depression, anxiety, stress, DASS-21, khat use, and Jazan

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]