Decreased lung carcinoma cell density on select polymer nanometer surface features for lung replacement therapies
Lijuan Zhang1, Young Wook Chun2, Thomas J Webster2
1Department of Chemistry and 2Division of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI USA
Abstract: Poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) has been widely used as a biomaterial in regenerative medicine because of its biocompatibility and biodegradability properties. Previous studies have shown that cells (such as bladder smooth muscle cells, chondrocytes, and osteoblasts) respond differently to nanostructured PLGA surfaces compared with nanosmooth surfaces. The purpose of the present in vitro research was to prepare PLGA films with various nanometer surface features and determine whether lung cancer epithelial cells respond differently to such topographies. To create nanosurface features on PLGA, different sized (190 nm, 300 nm, 400 nm, and 530 nm diameter) polystyrene beads were used to cast polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) molds which were used as templates to create nanofeatured PLGA films. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images and root mean square roughness (RMS) values indicated that the intended spherical surface nanotopographies on PLGA with RMS values of 2.23, 5.03, 5.42, and 36.90 nm were formed by employing 190, 300, 400, and 530 nm beads. A solution evaporation method was also utilized to modify PLGA surface features by using 8 wt% (to obtain an AFM RMS value of 0.62 nm) and 4 wt% (to obtain an AFM RMS value of 2.23 nm) PLGA in chloroform solutions. Most importantly, lung cancer epithelial cells adhered less on the PLGA surfaces with RMS values of 0.62, 2.23, and 5.42 nm after four hours of culture compared with any other PLGA surface created here. After three days, PLGA surfaces with an RMS value of 0.62 nm had much lower cell density than any other sample. In this manner, PLGA with specific nanometer surface features may inhibit lung cancer cell density which may provide an important biomaterial for the treatment of lung cancer (from drug delivery to regenerative medicine).
Keywords: nanotechnology, cancer, nanotopography, lung carcinoma
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