Cytokine production capabilities of human primary monocyte-derived macrophages from patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 with and without diabetic peripheral neuropathy
Received 4 September 2018
Accepted for publication 15 November 2018
Published 19 December 2018 Volume 2019:12 Pages 69—81
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Dr Michael E Schatman
Perla Abigail Alvarado-Vázquez,1 Rachel L Grosick,2 Carolina Moracho-Vilrriales,2 Eileen Ward,2 Tiffaney Threatt,2 Edgar Alfonso Romero-Sandoval3
1Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Uppsala University, SE-751 23 Uppsala, Sweden; 2Department of Pharmacy Practice, Presbyterian College School of Pharmacy, Clinton, SC, USA; 3Department of Anesthesiology, Pain Mechanisms Laboratory, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA
Introduction: Monocytes from patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) are dysfunctional, persistently primed, and prone to a proinflammatory phenotype. This may alter the phenotype of their differentiation to macrophages and result in diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN), nerve damage, nerve sensitization, and chronic pain. We have previously demonstrated that CD163 is a molecule that promotes an anti-inflammatory cellular phenotype in human primary macrophages, but this has not been proven in macrophages from patients with DM2 or DPN. Thus, we hypothesize that macrophages from patients with DM2 or DPN display an altered proinflammatory functional phenotype related to cytokine production and that the induction of CD163 expression will promote a more homeostatic phenotype by reducing their proinflammatory responsiveness.
Patients and methods: We tested these hypotheses in vitro using blood monocyte-derived macrophages from healthy subjects and patients with DM2 with and without DPN. Cells were incubated in the presence or the absence of 5 µg/mL of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The concentrations of interleukin-10, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), TGF-β, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were measured using ELISA assays. Macrophages were transfected with an empty vector plasmid or a plasmid containing the CD163 gene using mannosylated polyethylenimine nanoparticles.
Results: Our results show that nonstimulated DM2 or DPN macrophages have a constitutive primed proinflammatory state and display a deficient production of proinflammatory cytokines upon a proinflammatory challenge when compared to healthy macrophages. CD163 induction produced an anti-inflammatory phenotype in the healthy control group, and this effect was partial in DM2 or DPN macrophages.
Conclusion: Our results suggest that diabetic macrophages adopt a complex phenotype that is only partially reversed by CD163 induction. Future experiments are focused on elucidating this differential responsiveness between healthy and diabetic macrophages.
Keywords: primary human macrophages, CD163, transfection, LPS
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