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Cross talk between poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 methylation and oxidative stress involved in the toxic effect of anatase titanium dioxide nanoparticles

Authors Bai W, Chen Y, Gao A

Received 6 May 2015

Accepted for publication 16 July 2015

Published 1 September 2015 Volume 2015:10(1) Pages 5561—5569

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S88059

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Chang Liu

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Lei Yang

Wenlin Bai,1,2 Yujiao Chen,1,2 Ai Gao1,2

1Department of Occupational Health and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, 2Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China

Abstract: Given the tremendous growth in the application of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TNPs), concerns about the potential health hazards of TNPs to humans have been raised. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1), a highly conserved DNA-binding protein, is involved in many molecular and cellular processes. Limited data demonstrated that certain nanomaterials induced the aberrant hypermethylation of PARP-1. However, the mechanism involved in TNP-induced PARP-1 abnormal methylation has not been studied. A549 cells were incubated with anatase TNPs (22.1 nm) for 24 hours pretreatment with or without methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger α-lipoic acid to assess the possible role of methylation and ROS in the toxic effect of TNPs. After TNPs characterization, a battery of assays was performed to evaluate the toxic effect of TNPs, PARP-1 methylation status, and oxidative damage. Results showed that TNPs decreased the cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, in accordance with the increase of lactate dehydrogenase activity, which indicated membrane damage of cells. Similar to the high level of PARP-1 methylation, the generation of ROS was significantly increased after exposure to TNPs for 24 hours. Furthermore, α-lipoic acid decreased TNP-induced ROS generation and then attenuated TNP-triggered PARP-1 hypermethylation. Meanwhile, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine simultaneously decreased the ROS generation induced by TNPs, resulting in the decline of PARP-1 methylation. In summary, TNPs triggered the aberrant hypermethylation of the PARP-1 promoter and there was a cross talk between oxidative stress and PARP-1 methylation in the toxic effect of TNPs.

Keywords: titanium dioxide nanoparticles, PARP-1, oxidative stress, DNA methylation

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