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COVID-19 Pandemic: Review of Contemporary and Forthcoming Detection Tools

Authors Oishee MJ, Ali T, Jahan N, Khandker SS, Haq MA, Khondoker MU, Sil BK, Lugova H, Krishnapillai A, Abubakar AR, Kumar S, Haque M, Jamiruddin MR, Adnan N

Received 30 October 2020

Accepted for publication 30 January 2021

Published 17 March 2021 Volume 2021:14 Pages 1049—1082

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IDR.S289629

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Héctor M. Mora-Montes


Mumtarin Jannat Oishee,1 Tamanna Ali,1 Nowshin Jahan,1 Shahad Saif Khandker,1 Md Ahsanul Haq,1 Mohib Ullah Khondoker,2 Bijon Kumar Sil,3 Halyna Lugova,4 Ambigga Krishnapillai,4 Abdullahi Rabiu Abubakar,5 Santosh Kumar,6 Mainul Haque,7 Mohd Raeed Jamiruddin,8 Nihad Adnan9

1Gonoshasthaya-RNA Molecular Diagnostic and Research Center, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 2Gonoshasthaya Samaj Vittik Medical College, Dhaka, 1344, Bangladesh; 3Gono Bishwabidyalay, Dhaka, 1344, Bangladesh; 4Faculty of Medicine and Defence Health, National Defence University of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 5Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Bayero University, Kano, 700233, Kano, Nigeria; 6Department of Periodontology and Implantology, Karnavati University, Gandhinagar, 382422, India; 7The Unit of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine and Defence Health Universiti Pertahanan, Nasional Malaysia (National Defence University of Malaysia), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 8Department of Pharmacy, BRAC University, Dhaka, 1212, Bangladesh; 9Department of Microbiology, Jahangirnagar University, Dhaka, 1342, Bangladesh

Correspondence: Mainul Haque
The Unit of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine and Defence Health, Universiti Pertahanan, Nasional Malaysia (National Defence University of Malaysia), Kem Perdana Sungai Besi, Kuala Lumpur, 57000, Malaysia
Tel +60109265543
Email [email protected]

Abstract: Recent severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 (SARS-CoV-2) known as COVID-19, presents a deadly challenge to the global healthcare system of developing and developed countries, exposing the limitations of health facilities preparedness for emerging infectious disease pandemic. Opportune detection, confinement, and early treatment of infected cases present the first step in combating COVID-19. In this review, we elaborate on various COVID-19 diagnostic tools that are available or under investigation. Consequently, cell culture, followed by an indirect fluorescent antibody, is one of the most accurate methods for detecting SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, restrictions imposed by the regulatory authorities prevented its general use and implementation. Diagnosis via radiologic imaging and reverse transcriptase PCR assay is frequently employed, considered as standard procedures, whereas isothermal amplification methods are currently on the verge of clinical introduction. Notably, techniques such as CRISPR-Cas and microfluidics have added new dimensions to the SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis. Furthermore, commonly used immunoassays such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA), neutralization assay, and the chemiluminescent assay can also be used for early detection and surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Finally, advancement in the next generation sequencing (NGS) and metagenomic analysis are smoothing the viral detection further in this global challenge.

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, severe acute syndrome, diagnostic, detection-tools, immunoassay, amplification, gene-sequencing, cell-culture, microscopy

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