Correlation between cognitive impairment during the acute phase of first cerebral infarction and development of long-term pseudobulbar affect
Authors Wang Y, Wang Y, Ma W, Lu S, Chen J, Cao L
Received 6 January 2018
Accepted for publication 1 February 2018
Published 28 March 2018 Volume 2018:14 Pages 871—877
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Justinn Cochran
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Professor Wai Kwong Tang
Yuan Wang,1,2 Yuliang Wang,2 Wenbin Ma,2 Shujun Lu,2 Jinbo Chen,2 Lili Cao1
1Department of Neurology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Neurology, Binzhou Medical University Hospital, Binzhou, People’s Republic of China
Purpose: The relationship between cognitive impairment during the acute phase of first cerebral infarction and the development of long-term pseudobulbar affect (PBA) has not been elucidated. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to determine if cognitive impairment during the acute phase of cerebral infarction will increase the risk of long-term post-infarction PBA.
Patients and methods: This was a nested case–control study using a prospective approach.
A consecutive multicenter matched 1:1 case–control study of cognitive impairment cases following acute cerebral infarction (N=26) with 26 sex-, education years-, and age-matched controls. Univariate and multivariate conditional logistic regression analyses were performed to study the clinical features and changes in cognitive domain as well as the risk factors for PBA.
Results: Long-term PBA was independently predicted by low Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) scores at baseline. Multivariable regression models showed that post-infarction low MoCA scores remained independent predictors of long-term PBA (odds ratio [OR]=0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.54–0.95; P=0.018). Among all cognitive disorders, digit span test (DST) scores (OR=0.39; 95% CI=0.16–0.91, P=0.030), StroopC time (OR=1.15; 95% CI=1.01–1.31; P=0.037), and clock-drawing task (CDT) scores (OR=0.62; 95% CI=0.42–0.90; P=0.013) were found to be the independent risk factors for PBA.
Conclusion: Cognitive impairment during the acute phase of cerebral infarction increased the risk of cerebral infarction-induced long-term PBA. Development of PBA was closely associated with executive function, attention, and visuospatial disorder.
Keywords: cognitive impairment, pseudobulbar affect, cerebral infarction, neuropsychological tests, cognitive domain
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