Comparative seroprevalence of measles virus immunoglobulin M antibodies in children aged 0–8 months and a control population aged 9–23 months presenting with measles-like symptoms in selected hospitals in Kaduna State
Authors Olaitan A, Ella EE, Ameh JB
Received 17 December 2014
Accepted for publication 29 January 2015
Published 10 March 2015 Volume 2015:8 Pages 101—108
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Scott Fraser
AE Olaitan, EE Ella, JB Ameh
Department of Microbiology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
Background: Measles remains the leading cause of vaccine-preventable childhood mortality in developing countries, with its greatest incidence in children younger than 2 years of age. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of measles virus in children (aged 0–8 months) and older children (aged 9–23 months) presenting with measles-like symptoms.
Methods: A total of 273 blood samples comprising 200 from children aged 0–8 months and 73 from children aged 9–23 months were collected and analyzed for measles virus IgM antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Results: An overall prevalence of 21.2% was obtained, with a prevalence of 6.5% in children aged 0–8 months and 61.6% in children aged 9–23 months. The prevalence of measles virus increased with age in children aged 0–8 months and decreased with age in older children (aged 9–23 months), showing a significant association between measles virus and age of the child (P=0.000). A higher prevalence was found in females (27.5%) than in males (16.3%) and this difference was significant (odds ratio 1.942, P=0.025). There was no significant association with the level of parental education, parental occupation, or number of children in the family (P>0.05). With respect to children's vaccination status and breastfeeding, there was a significant association (P<0.05). The marital status of the family, place of residence, and household size showed no significant association with the prevalence of measles virus. However, a significant association was observed in relation to maternal measles history (odds ratio 2.535, P=0.005) and maternal vaccination status (odds ratio 1.791, P=0.049), as well as between measles virus infection and all presenting symptoms, except for vomiting, malaria, typhoid, and pneumonia, which showed no significant association (P>0.05).
Conclusion: The findings of this study confirm the presence of measles virus infection in children aged 0–8 months.
Keywords: measles virus, malaria, vaccination, breastfeeding
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