Comorbidity and health-related quality of life in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease attending Swedish secondary care units
Received 20 September 2014
Accepted for publication 22 October 2014
Published 22 January 2015 Volume 2015:10(1) Pages 173—183
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 4
Editor who approved publication: Dr Richard Russell
Josefin Sundh,1 Gunnar Johansson,2 Kjell Larsson,3 Anders Lindén,3 Claes-Göran Löfdahl,4 Christer Janson,5 Thomas Sandström6
1Department of Respiratory Medicine, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; 2Department of Public Health and Caring Science, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; 3Unit for Lung and Airway Research, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 4Department of Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; 5Department of Medical Sciences: Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; 6Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Division of Medicine/Respiratory Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden
Introduction: Our understanding of how comorbid diseases influence health-related quality of life (HRQL) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is limited and in need of improvement. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between comorbidities and HRQL as measured by the instruments EuroQol-5 dimension (EQ-5D) and the COPD Assessment Test (CAT).
Methods: Information on patient characteristics, chronic bronchitis, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, renal impairment, musculoskeletal symptoms, osteoporosis, depression, and EQ-5D and CAT questionnaire results was collected from 373 patients with Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1) <50% of predicted value from 27 secondary care respiratory units in Sweden. Correlation analyses and multiple linear regression models were performed using EQ-5D index, EQ-5D visual analog scale (VAS), and CAT scores as response variables.
Results: Having more comorbid conditions was associated with a worse HRQL as assessed by all instruments. Chronic bronchitis was significantly associated with a worse HRQL as assessed by EQ-5D index (adjusted regression coefficient [95% confidence interval] –0.07 [–0.13 to –0.02]), EQ-5D VAS (–5.17 [–9.42 to –0.92]), and CAT (3.78 [2.35 to 5.20]). Musculoskeletal symptoms were significantly associated with worse EQ-5D index (–0.08 [–0.14 to –0.02]), osteoporosis with worse EQ-5D VAS (–4.65 [–9.27 to –0.03]), and depression with worse EQ-5D index (–0.10 [–0.17 to –0.04]). In stratification analyses, the associations of musculoskeletal symptoms, osteoporosis, and depression with HRQL were limited to female patients.
Conclusion: The instruments EQ-5D and CAT complement each other and emerge as useful for assessing HRQL in patients with COPD. Chronic bronchitis, musculoskeletal symptoms, osteoporosis, and depression were associated with worse HRQL. We conclude that comorbid conditions, in particular chronic bronchitis, depression, osteoporosis, and musculoskeletal symptoms, should be taken into account in the clinical management of patients with severe COPD.
Keywords: chronic bronchitis, EQ-5D, CAT, osteoporosis, depression, musculoskeletal symptoms
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