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Coccidioidomycosis: epidemiology

Authors Brown J, Benedict K, Park BJ, Thompson GR III

Received 13 March 2013

Accepted for publication 15 April 2013

Published 25 June 2013 Volume 2013:5(1) Pages 185—197

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/CLEP.S34434

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

Jennifer Brown,1 Kaitlin Benedict,2 Benjamin J Park,2 George R Thompson III1,3

1Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of California, Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA, USA; 2Mycotic Diseases Branch, Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA; 3Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, One Shields Avenue, Tupper Hall, Coccidioidomycosis Serology Laboratory, University of California, Davis, CA, USA

Abstract: Coccidioidomycosis consists of a spectrum of disease, ranging from a mild, self-limited, febrile illness to severe, life-threatening infection. It is caused by the soil-dwelling fungi, Coccidioides immitis and C. posadasii, which are present in diverse endemic areas. Climate changes and environmental factors affect the Coccidioides lifecycle and influence infection rates. The incidence of coccidioidomycosis has risen substantially over the past two decades. The vast majority of Coccidioides infections occur in the endemic zones, such as California, Arizona, Mexico, and Central America. Infections occurring outside those zones appear to be increasingly common, and pose unique clinical and public health challenges. It has long been known that elderly persons, pregnant women, and members of certain ethnic groups are at risk for severe or disseminated coccidioidomycosis. In recent years, it has become evident that persons with immunodeficiency diseases, diabetics, transplant recipients, and prisoners are also particularly vulnerable.

Keywords: coccidioidomycosis, Coccidioides, epidemiology, incidence, risk factors, geography

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