Clustering of Elevated Blood Pressure, Elevated Blood Glucose, and Abdominal Obesity Among Adults in Dire Dawa: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study
Received 20 February 2020
Accepted for publication 28 May 2020
Published 16 June 2020 Volume 2020:13 Pages 2013—2024
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Juei-Tang Cheng
Melkamu Merid Mengesha,1 Behailu Hawulte Ayele,2 Addisu Shunu Beyene,3 Hirbo Shore Roba1
1Haramaya University, College of Health and Medical Sciences, School of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Harar, Ethiopia; 2Haramaya University, College of Health and Medical Sciences, School of Public Health, Department of Public Health and Health Policy, Harar, Ethiopia; 3Haramaya University, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Harar, Ethiopia
Correspondence: Melkamu Merid Mengesha
College of Health and Medical Sciences, Harar, Ethiopia
Background: Evidence shows that the presence of a single component of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) increases the risk of developing the MetS later in life. This study estimated the prevalence and associated factors of abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure, elevated blood glucose, and the 3-factor MetS components among urban adults in Dire Dawa, East Ethiopia.
Methods: Community-based cross-sectional data were collected from 872 adults aged 25– 64 years. The joint interim statement (JIS) was used to define the MetS components. The dependent outcome variables were both the individual and the 3-factor MetS components. A robust variance Poisson regression model was used to directly estimate the prevalence ratio (PR) of risk factors.
Results: The prevalence of the 3-factor MetS components (abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure, and elevated blood glucose) was 9.5% (95% CI: 7.7, 11.7). Women had two times higher prevalence of the 3-factor MetS components compared with men, 11.6% (95% CI: 9.2, 14.5) vs 5.2% (95% CI: 3.2, 8.5). A higher prevalence of abdominal obesity, 46.4% (95% CI: 43.1, 49.8), followed by a raised blood pressure, 42.7% (95% CI: 39.4, 46.0), was observed among study subjects. The presence of a single MetS component had an associated cluster of other components: 33.7% of subjects with elevated blood glucose, 22.3% with elevated blood pressure, and 20.5% with abdominal obesity had also the 3-factor MetS components. Age, sex, body mass index, waist circumference, and physical activity were significantly associated with the individual components or the 3-factor MetS components.
Conclusion: A higher prevalence of the individual components and the presence of clustering with a single factor identified call for the need of community screening. Interventions targeting both abdominal and general obesity through physical activity and lifestyle modification can contribute towards reducing cardiometabolic risk factors with due attention given to women and older adults.
Keywords: abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure, elevated blood glucose, physical activity, metabolic syndrome components
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