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Clinicopathological significance and potential drug target of p15INK4B in multiple myeloma

Authors Li J, Bi L, Lin Y, Lu Z, Hou G

Received 13 July 2014

Accepted for publication 26 August 2014

Published 31 October 2014 Volume 2014:8 Pages 2129—2136

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/DDDT.S71088

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Professor Shu-Feng Zhou

Jun Li,1,* Lintao Bi,1 Yumei Lin,1,* Zhenxia Lu,1 Gang Hou2

1Department of Hematology and Oncology, China-Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, The First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China

*These authors contributed equally to this work


Abstract: Multiple myeloma (MM) is a clonal malignancy characterized by the proliferation of malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow and the production of monoclonal immunoglobulin. In addition to genetic changes, gene hypermethylation is an alternative mechanism of tumor suppressor gene inactivation in MM. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 (CDKN2B or p15INK4B) gene lies adjacent to the tumor suppressor gene, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2 (CDKN2A), and is frequently mutated and deleted in a wide variety of tumors, including MM. However, there is a lack of systematic analysis of p15 epigenetic modification such as methylation in MM from different studies that can provide more powerful estimation of an effect. In this study, we have systematically reviewed the studies of p15INK4B promoter methylation in MM and quantified the association between p15INK4B promoter methylation and MM using meta-analysis methods. We observed that the frequency of p15INK4B methylation is significantly higher in MM patients than in normal healthy controls. The pooled odds ratio (OR) from ten studies including 394 MM and 99 normal individuals is 0.08, while confidence interval (CI) is 0.03–0.21 (P<0.00001). This indicates that p15INK4B inactivation through methylation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of MM. In addition, the frequency of p15INK4B methylation was significantly higher in patients with MM than in those with asymptomatic monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. The pooled OR from four studies is 0.40, 95% CI =0.21–0.78 (P=0.007). These results suggest that silencing of p15INK4B gene expression by epigenetic modification such as promoter hypermethylation plays a role not only in the initiation of MM but also in plasma cell malignant transformation, disease progression, and development.

Keywords: multiple myeloma, asymptomatic monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), p15, methylation, meta-analysis

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