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Clinical significance of serum cathepsin B and cystatin C levels and their ratio in the prognosis of patients with esophageal cancer

Authors Yan Y, Zhou K, Wang L, Wang F, Chen X, Fan Q

Received 23 September 2016

Accepted for publication 10 December 2016

Published 3 April 2017 Volume 2017:10 Pages 1947—1954


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Chang Liu

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Samir Farghaly

Yan Yan,1,* Kun Zhou,2,* Liping Wang,1 Feng Wang,1 Xinfeng Chen,3 Qingxia Fan1

1Department of Oncology, 2Department of Thoracic Surgery, 3Department of Biotherapy Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, People’s Republic of China

*These authors contributed equally to this work

Objective: The main purpose of this study was to analyze the serum cathepsin B (CTSB) and cystatin C (CysC) levels in patients with esophageal carcinoma and their correlation with the clinical indices and prognosis.
Methods: The serum levels of CTSB and CysC from 56 patients with esophageal carcinoma and 30 healthy donors were determined preoperatively by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The correlation between CTSB and CysC was evaluated by Spearman correlation coefficient test. Kaplan–Meier survival curves were plotted, while the survival rates were compared using the log-rank test. Univariate and multivariate analyses of prognostic factors for survival were performed using the Cox proportional hazard regression model with a 95% confidence interval.
Results: CTSB (38.35±4.3 ng/mL) and CysC (703.96±23.6 ng/mL) levels were significantly higher in the sera of the patients than in controls. A significant correlation was observed between CTSB and CysC (r=0.754, P<0.001). The levels of CTSB and CysC/CTSB in the patient serum significantly correlated with the T status. CysC/CTSB ratio was also found to be significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis. None of the parameters were observed to be related to CysC, including age, gender, pathologic type, tumor differentiation and tumor invasion depth. Kaplan–Meier analysis showed that patients with higher levels of CysC/CTSB and negative lymph node metastasis experienced significantly longer overall survival time, whereas patients with higher CSTB levels tended to live shorter, although the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.081).
Conclusion: Serum CTSB and CysC levels are of diagnostic significance in esophageal cancer. The ratio of serum CysC/CTSB is prognostic for the survival of esophageal carcinoma patients.

Keywords: esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, cathepsin B, cystatin C, diagnostic value, prognosis

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