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Clinical and molecular genetic features of Hb H and AE Bart’s diseases in central Thai children

Authors Traivaree C, Boonyawat B, Monsereenusorn C, Rujkijyanont P, Photia A

Received 30 December 2017

Accepted for publication 10 February 2018

Published 3 April 2018 Volume 2018:11 Pages 23—30

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/TACG.S161152

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Cristina Weinberg

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Martin H. Maurer


Chanchai Traivaree,1,* Boonchai Boonyawat,2,* Chalinee Monsereenusorn,1 Piya Rujkijyanont,1 Apichat Photia1

1Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, Phramongkutklao Hospital and College of Medicine, Bangkok, Thailand; 2Division of Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, Phramongkutklao Hospital and College of Medicine, Bangkok, Thailand

*These authors contributed equally to this work

Background: α-Thalassemia, one of the major thalassemia types in Thailand, is caused by either deletion or non-deletional mutation of one or both α-globin genes. Inactivation of three α-globin genes causes hemoglobin H (Hb H) disease, and the combination of Hb H disease with heterozygous hemoglobin E (Hb E) results in AE Bart’s disease.
Objective:
This study aimed to characterize the clinical and hematological manifestations of 76 pediatric patients with Hb H and AE Bart’s diseases treated at Phramongkutklao Hospital, a tertiary care center for thalassemia patients in central Thailand.
Patients and methods: Seventy-six unrelated pediatric patients, 58 patients with Hb H disease and 18 patients with AE Bart’s disease, were enrolled in this study. Their clinical presentations, transfusion requirement, laboratory findings, and mutation analysis were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed.
Results: A total of 76 pediatric patients with Hb H and AE Bart’s diseases who mainly lived in central Thailand were included in this study. The clinical severities of patients with non-deletional mutations were more severe than those with deletional mutations. Eighty-six percent of patients with non-deletional AE Bart’s disease required more blood transfusion compared to 12.5% of patients with deletional AE Bart’s disease. Non-deletional AE Bart’s disease also had a history of urgent blood transfusion with the average of 6±0.9 times compared to 1±0.3 times in patients with deletional Hb H disease. The difference was statistically significant.
Conclusion: This study revealed the differences in clinical spectrum between patients with Hb H disease and those with AE Bart’s disease in central Thailand. The differentiation of α-thalassemia is essential for appropriate management of patients. The molecular diagnosis is useful for diagnostic confirmation and genotype–phenotype correlation.

Keywords:
genotype, phenotype, Hb H disease, AE Bart’s disease, Thai children

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