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Cigarette smoking and risk of adult glioma: a meta-analysis of 24 observational studies involving more than 2.3 million individuals

Authors Li H, Peng X, Zong Q, Zhang K, Wang M, Liu Y, Han G

Received 3 November 2015

Accepted for publication 16 March 2016

Published 14 June 2016 Volume 2016:9 Pages 3511—3523

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/OTT.S99713

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Manfred Beleut

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Faris Farassati


Hong-xing Li,1,* Xiao-xiao Peng,1,2,* Qiang Zong,1 Kai Zhang,1 Ming-xin Wang,1 Yi-zhe Liu,1 Guang-liang Han1

1Department of Neurosurgery, Shengli Oilfield Central Hospital, 2Department of Intensive Care Unit, Dongying, Shandong, People’s Republic of China

*These authors contributed equally to this work

Background: Cigarette smoking has been shown to be a risk factor for adult glioma by some but not all studies. We conducted a meta-analysis to systematically assess the potential association.
Methods:
PubMed and EMBASE were searched from the date of their inception to October 1, 2015, to identify relevant articles. Reference lists from these articles were reviewed to identify additional studies. Both cohort and case–control studies were included. Fixed-effects models were used to calculate the overall relative risk (RR) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
Results: The final analysis included 24 studies (seven cohort and 17 case–control studies), involving more than 2.3 million individuals. The combined RR was 1.04 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.09; P=0.073) for ever-smokers, 0.97 (95% CI: 0.88, 1.07; P=0.574) for current-smokers, and 1.07 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.16; P=0.130) for past smokers, with little evidence of heterogeneity. Omission of any single study from the analysis had little effect on the result. No evidence of publication bias was found. A small but statistically significant increase was found in past smokers in females (RR: 1.13, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.28; P=0.046) but not in males.
Conclusion: In general, there was no association between cigarette smoking and adult glioma. The small but statistically significant association in females requires further investigation.

Keywords:
cigarette smoking, glioma, meta-analysis, risk

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