CAT3, a prodrug of 13a(S)-3-hydroxyl-6,7-dimethoxyphenanthro[9,10-b]-indolizidine, circumvents temozolomide-resistant glioblastoma via the Hedgehog signaling pathway, independently of O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase expression
Received 23 January 2018
Accepted for publication 24 April 2018
Published 25 June 2018 Volume 2018:11 Pages 3671—3684
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Faris Farassati
Ming Ji,1 Liyuan Wang,1 Ju Chen,1 Nina Xue,2 Chunyang Wang,2 Fangfang Lai,2 Rubing Wang,1 Shishan Yu,1 Jing Jin,1,2 Xiaoguang Chen1,2
1State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Functions of Natural Medicines, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100050, People’s Republic of China; 2Beijing Key Laboratory of New Drug Mechanisms and Pharmacological Evaluation Study, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100050, People’s Republic of China
Purpose: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a malignant high-grade glioma with a poor clinical outcome. Temozolomide (TMZ) is the first-line GBM chemotherapy; however, patients commonly develop resistance to its effects.
Materials and methods: We investigated the antitumor activity of CAT3 in TMZ-resistant glioblastoma cell lines U251/TMZ and T98G. Orthotopic and subcutaneous mice tumor models were used to investigate the effects of various treatment regimes.
Results: We found that PF403, the active metabolite of CAT3, inhibited proliferation of both cell lines. PF403 repressed the Hedgehog signaling pathway in the U251/TMZ cell line, reduced O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) expression, and abolished the effects of the Shh pathway. Moreover, PF403 blocked the Hedgehog signaling pathway in T98G MGMT-expressing cells and downregulated the expression of MGMT. CAT3 suppressed growth in the U251/TMZ orthotopic and T98G subcutaneous xenograft tumor models in vivo. We also demonstrated that inhibition of the Hedgehog pathway by PF403 counteracted TMZ resistance and enhanced the antitumor activity of TMZ in vitro and in vivo.
Conclusion: These results indicate that CAT3 is a potential therapeutic agent for TMZ-resistant GBM.
Keywords: Gli inhibitor, chemotherapy, lomeguatrib, xenograft tumor model
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