Caregivers’ Nutrition Knowledge and Dietary Intake of Type 1 Diabetic Children Aged 3–14 Years in Uganda
Authors Ndahura NB, Munga J, Kimiywe J, Mupere E
Received 30 October 2020
Accepted for publication 7 January 2021
Published 14 January 2021 Volume 2021:14 Pages 127—137
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Antonio Brunetti
Nicholas Bari Ndahura,1,2 Judith Munga,2 Judith Kimiywe,2 Ezekiel Mupere3
1Department of Human Nutrition and Home Economics, Kyambogo University, Kampala, Uganda; 2Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya; 3Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda
Correspondence: Nicholas Bari Ndahura
Department of Human Nutrition and Home Economics, P.O Box 1 Kyambogo, Kampala, Uganda
Purpose: This study aimed to assess the association between caregiver’s level of type 1 diabetes (T1D) nutrition knowledge with children’s dietary diversity score (DDS), mean intake of macronutrients, nutrient adequacy ratios (NARs) and mean adequacy ratio (MAR).
Research Design and Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study design was used. The study was conducted at 6 diabetes clinics in Uganda among 59 caregivers and 61 children. T1D nutrition knowledge survey (NKS) was used to assess the caregiver’s nutrition knowledge, and the 24-hour dietary recall and dietary diversity score (DDS) questionnaires were used to collect data on the child’s dietary intake.
Results: Majority (93.2%) of the caregivers had low T1D nutrition knowledge. Carbohydrate counting was the least performed nutrition knowledge domain. The children’s mean DDS, calorie intake and MAR were 5.7 ± 1.6, 666.7 ± 639.8 kcal and 0.7 ± 0.3, respectively. The mean NARs of carbohydrate, protein, and fat were 0.9 ± 0.3, 0.9 ± 0.4, 0.5 ± 0.5, respectively. There was a significant association between DDS with NARs of carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins A, B2, B3, B5, B12, folic acid, zinc and MAR. No formal education was significantly associated with a lower mean NKS score among caregivers (p = 0.039). Caregivers’ T1D nutrition knowledge, age and family size explained 14% of variation in the child’s dietary diversity (p = 0.041).
Conclusion: Despite poor nutrition knowledge among caregivers especially on carbohydrate counting, dietary diversity among children with T1D remained favorable. Excess carbohydrate intake was observed with inadequate intake of proteins, fats and micronutrients (vitamin A, B vitamins and calcium). Caregivers with low education were more likely to register poor nutrition knowledge; therefore, there is need to develop and tailor nutrition education programmes to enhance comprehensive learning among caregivers for improved outcomes.
Keywords: nutrition education, type 1 diabetes, nutrient intake, diabetes, adolescents
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