Carbon-ion radiotherapy in accelerated hypofractionated active raster-scanning technique for malignant lacrimal gland tumors: feasibility and safety
Received 7 October 2018
Accepted for publication 27 December 2018
Published 1 February 2019 Volume 2019:11 Pages 1155—1166
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Antonella D'Anneo
Sati Akbaba,1–3 Kristin Lang,1,2 Thomas Held,1,2 Klaus Herfarth,1–3 Juliane Rieber,1–3 Peter Plinkert,4 Gerd U Auffarth,5 Stefan Rieken,1–3 Juergen Debus,1–3 Sebastian Adeberg1–3
1Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg 69120, Germany; 2Heidelberg Institute of Radiation Oncology (HIRO), National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology (NCRO), University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg 69120, Germany; 3Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT), University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg 69120, Germany; 4Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg 69120, Germany; 5Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg 69120, Germany
Introduction: We evaluated treatment outcomes of CIRT in an active raster-scanning technique alone or in combination with IMRT for lacrimal gland tumors.
Methods: A total of 24 patients who received CIRT for a malignant lacrimal gland tumor at the HIT between 2009 and 2018 were analyzed retrospectively for LC, OS, and distant progression-free survival (DPFS) using Kaplan–Meier estimates. Toxicity was assessed according to the CTCAE version 5.
Results: Median follow-up was 30 months and overall median LC, OS, and DPFS 24 months, 36 months, and 31 months, respectively. Two-year LC, OS, and DPFS of 93%, 96%, and 87% with CIRT was achieved for all patients. Local failure occurred only in patients with ACC and after a median follow-up of 30 months after the completion of RT (n=5, 21%; P=0.09). We identified a significant negative impact of a macroscopic tumor disease, which was diagnosed on planning CT or MRI before RT, on LC (P=0.026). In contrast, perineural spread (P=0.661), T stage (P=0.552), and resection margins in operated patients (P=0.069) had no significant impact on LC. No grade ≥3 acute or grade >3 chronic toxicity occurred. Late grade 3 side effects were identified in form of a wound-healing disorder 3 months after RT in one patient and temporal lobe necrosis 6 months after RT in another (n=2, 8%).
Conclusion: Accelerated hypofractionated active raster-scanning CIRT for relative radioresistant malignant lacrimal gland tumors results in adequate LC rates and moderate acute and late toxicity. Nevertheless, LC for ACC histology remains challenging and risk factors for local recurrence are still unclear. Further follow-up is necessary to evaluate long-term clinical outcome.
Keywords: carbon-ion radiotherapy, bimodal RT, malignant lacrimal gland tumor, adenoid cystic carcinoma, local control
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