Burden and treatment patterns of invasive fungal infections in hospitalized patients in the Middle East: real-world data from Saudi Arabia and Lebanon
Authors Alothman AF, Althaqafi AO, Matar MJ, Moghnieh R, Alenazi TH, Farahat FM, Corman S, Solem CT, Raghubir N, Macahilig C, Charbonneau C, Stephens JM
Received 30 September 2015
Accepted for publication 18 February 2016
Published 2 February 2017 Volume 2017:10 Pages 35—41
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Varun Dwivedi
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Professor Suresh Antony
Adel F Alothman,1 Abdulhakeem O Althaqafi,2 Madonna J Matar,3 Rima Moghnieh,4 Thamer H Alenazi,1 Fayssal M Farahat,2 Shelby Corman,5 Caitlyn T Solem,5 Nirvana Raghubir,6 Cynthia Macahilig,7 Claudie Charbonneau,8 Jennifer M Stephens5
1College of Medicine, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Infection Prevention and Control, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, King Saud bin AbdulAziz University for Health Sciences, King AbdulAziz Medical City, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Infectious Disease, Notre Dame de Secours University Hospital, Byblos, Lebanon; 4Department of Internal Medicine, Makassed General Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon; 5Real-world Evidence/Data Analytics Center of Excellence, Pharmerit International, Bethesda, MD, USA; 6Pfizer, New York, NY, 7Medical Data Analytics, Parsippany, NJ, USA; 8Pfizer International Operation, Paris, France
Objectives: The objective of this study was to document the burden and treatment patterns associated with invasive fungal infections (IFIs) due to Candida and Aspergillus species in Saudi Arabia and Lebanon.
Methods: A retrospective chart review study was conducted using data recorded from 2011 to 2012 from hospitals in Saudi Arabia and Lebanon. Patients were included if they had been discharged with a diagnosis of IFI due to Candida or Aspergillus, which was culture proven or suspected based on clinical criteria. Hospital data were abstracted for a random sample of patients to capture demographics, treatment patterns, hospital resource utilization, and clinical outcomes. Descriptive results were reported.
Results: Five hospitals participated and provided data on 102 patients with IFI (51 from Lebanon and 51 from Saudi Arabia). The mean age of the patients was 55 years, and 55% were males. Comorbidities included diabetes (41%), coronary artery disease (24%), leukemia (19%), moderate-to-severe renal disease (16%), congestive heart failure (15%), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (15%). Twenty percent of patients received corticosteroids prior to admission and 26% had received chemotherapy in the past 90 days. Inpatient mortality was 42%, and the mean hospital length of stay was 32.4±28.6 days. Fifty-five percent of patients required intensive care unit admission (17.2±14.1 days), 37% required mechanical ventilation (13.7±13.2 days), and 11% required dialysis (14.6±14.2 days). The most commonly used first-line antifungal was fluconazole.
Conclusion: Patients with IFI in Saudi Arabia and Lebanon frequently have multiple medical comorbidities and may not have traditionally observed IFI risk factors. Efforts to increase use of rapid diagnostic tests and appropriate antifungal treatments may impact the substantial mortality and high length of stay observed in these patients.
Keywords: Candida, Aspergillus, length of stay, resource use, antifungal, mortality
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