Back to Journals » Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology » Volume 11

Botulinum neurotoxin formulations: overcoming the confusion

Authors Samizadeh S, De Boulle K

Received 13 November 2017

Accepted for publication 16 March 2018

Published 30 May 2018 Volume 2018:11 Pages 273—287


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 4

Editor who approved publication: Dr Jeffrey Weinberg

Video abstract presented by Souphiyeh Samizadeh.

Views: 531

Souphiyeh Samizadeh,1 Koenraad De Boulle2

1Great British Academy of Aesthetic Medicine, London, UK; 2Aalst Dermatology Clinic, Aalst, Belgium

Abstract: Botulinum toxin A is produced by anaerobic spore-forming bacteria and is used for various therapeutic and cosmetic purposes. Botulinum toxin A injections are the most popular nonsurgical procedure worldwide. Despite an increased demand for botulinum toxin A injections, the clinical pharmacology and differences in formulation of commonly available products are poorly understood. The various products available in the market are unique and vary in terms of units, chemical properties, biological activities, and weight, and are therefore not interchangeable. For safe clinical practice and to achieve optimal results, the practitioners need to understand the clinical issues of potency, conversion ratio, and safety issues (toxin spread and immunogenicity). In this paper, the basic clinical pharmacology of botulinum toxin A and differences between onabotulinum toxin A, abobotulinum toxin A, and incobotulinum toxin A are discussed.

Keywords: botulinum toxin, botulinum neurotoxin, moiety, protein complexes
Corrigendum for this paper has been published 

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]