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Biomarkers of Parkinson's disease: recent insights, current challenges, and future prospects

Authors Picillo M, Moccia M, Spina E, Barone P, Pellecchia M

Received 30 November 2015

Accepted for publication 11 January 2016

Published 22 February 2016 Volume 2016:6 Pages 1—13


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Peter Hedera

Marina Picillo,1 Marcello Moccia,2 Emanuele Spina,2 Paolo Barone,1 Maria Teresa Pellecchia1

1Department of Medicine and Surgery, Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (CEMAND), Neuroscience Section, University of Salerno, Salerno, Italy; 2Department of Neuroscience, Reproductive and Odontostomatologic Sciences, Federico II University, Naples, Italy

Abstract: A biomarker represents a tool possibly helping physicians in predicting onset, diagnosis, and progression of a disease as well as evaluating the response to disease-modifying treatments. Currently, there is no biomarker fulfilling all such ideal criteria for Parkinson's disease (PD). In this article, we have critically reviewed the literature searching for the most reliable and reproducible clinical, biochemical, and imaging biomarkers for prodromal phase, diagnosis, and progression of PD. Different comprehensive batteries of biomarkers have been proposed as a sensitive approach to predict the onset of PD during the prodromal phase. There is a discussion about the redefinition of the clinical diagnosis of PD, including clinical biomarkers as non-motor symptoms; however, on the other hand, we have also observed that imaging biomarkers support the differential diagnosis from other causes of parkinsonism. Various clinical (eg, freezing of gait or cognitive impairment), biochemical (eg, epidermal growth factor, insulin-like growth factor 1, uric acid, etc), and imaging (eg, functional magnetic resonance imaging, voxel-based morphometry, etc) biomarkers may help envisaging disease progression of PD. To conclude, given the lack of a single biomarker that could track the entire course of the disease, our challenge is to find the best combinations of biomarkers for the different stages of the disease.

biomarkers, Parkinson's disease, progression, motor, imaging , staging, non motor

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