Barth syndrome: mechanisms and management
Authors Finsterer J
Received 23 January 2019
Accepted for publication 4 May 2019
Published 5 June 2019 Volume 2019:12 Pages 95—106
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Martin H. Maurer
Krankenanstalt Rudolfstiftung, Messerli Institute, Vienna, Austria
Objectives: Barth syndrome is an ultra-rare, infantile-onset, X-linked recessive mitochondrial disorder, primarily affecting males, due to variants in TAZ encoding for the cardiolipin transacylase tafazzin. This review aimed to summarize and discuss recent and earlier findings concerning the etiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of Barth syndrome.
Method: A literature review was undertaken through a MEDLINE search.
Results: The phenotype of Barth syndrome is highly variable but most frequently patients present with hypertrophic/dilated/non-compaction cardiomyopathy, fibroelastosis, arrhythmias, neutropenia, mitochondrial myopathy, growth retardation, dysmorphism, cognitive impairment, and other, rarer features. Lactic acid and creatine kinase, and blood and urine organic acids, particularly 3-methylglutaconic acid and monolysocardiolipin, are often elevated. Cardiolipin is decreased. Biochemical investigations may show decreased activity of various respiratory chain complexes. The diagnosis is confirmed by documentation of a causative TAZ variant. Treatment is symptomatic and directed toward treating heart failure, arrhythmias, neutropenia, and mitochondrial myopathy.
Conclusions: Although Barth syndrome is still an orphan disease, with fewer than 200 cases described so far, there is extensive ongoing research with regard to its pathomechanism and new therapeutic approaches. Although most of these approaches are still experimental, it can be expected that causative strategies will be developed in the near future.
Keywords: Barth syndrome, tafazzin, TAZ, cardiomyopathy, non-compaction, X-linked
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