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Bacteriological Profile and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Bloodstream Infection at Kigali University Teaching Hospital

Authors Habyarimana T, Murenzi D, Musoni E, Yadufashije C, Niyonzima FN

Received 28 December 2020

Accepted for publication 12 February 2021

Published 23 February 2021 Volume 2021:14 Pages 699—707


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Héctor Mora-Montes

Thierry Habyarimana,1 Didier Murenzi,2 Emile Musoni,2 Callixte Yadufashije,1 François N Niyonzima1

1Biomedical Laboratory Sciences Department/INES-Ruhengeri, Musanze, Rwanda; 2Pathology Department, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Kigali, Kigali, Rwanda

Correspondence: Thierry Habyarimana P.O.Box 155 Ruhengeri Tel +250783025850

Background: Worldwide, bacterial bloodstream infections (BSIs) constitute an important cause of morbidity and mortality in clinical settings. Due to the limited laboratory facilities in sub-Saharan Africa, poor diagnosis of BSIs results in poor clinical outcomes and leads to a risk of antimicrobial resistance. The present work was carried out to describe the microbiological features of BSIs using the data collected from Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Kigali (CHUK).
Methods: A retrospective study was carried out at CHUK. The blood culture results of 2,910 cases – from adults, children and infants – were reviewed in the Microbiology service from October 2017 to October 2018. The following variables were considered: age, gender, admitting department, blood culture results, and antimicrobials sensitivity test results. Data were entered and analyzed using Microsoft Excel 2013.
Results: Twelve percent (341/2,910) of blood culture results reviewed were positive with 108 (31.7%) Gram positive bacteria and 233 (68.3%) Gram negative bacteria. The most prevalent pathogens were Klebsiella pneumoniae 108 (31.7%) and Staphylococcus aureus 100 (29.3%). This study revealed a high resistance to commonly prescribed antibiotics such as penicillin, trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole, and Ampicillin with 91.8, 83.3, and 81.8% of resistance, respectively. However, bacteria were sensitive to imipenem and vancomycin with 98.1 and 94.3% of sensitivity, respectively. The pediatrics and neonatology departments showed a high number of positive culture with 97/341 (28.4%), and 93/341 (27%) respectively. The overall prevalence of multidrug resistance was 77.1%.
Conclusion: The prevalence of bacterial pathogens in BSIs was found to be high. The antibiotic resistance to the commonly used antibiotics was high. Appropriate treatment of BSIs should be based on the current knowledge of bacterial resistance pattern. This study will help in formulating management of diagnostic guidelines and antibiotic policy.

Keywords: bloodstream infection; BSI, bacteriological profile, antimicrobials, Rwanda

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