Association between vitamin D and latent tuberculosis infection in the United States: NHANES, 2011–2012
Received 29 April 2019
Accepted for publication 3 July 2019
Published 22 July 2019 Volume 2019:12 Pages 2251—2257
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Cristina Weinberg
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Professor Suresh Antony
Cheng-Yi Wang,1,* Yin-Lan Hu,2,* Ya-Hui Wang,3 Cheng-Hsin Chen,1 Chih-Cheng Lai,4 Kun-Lun Huang5
1Department of Internal Medicine, Cardinal Tien Hospital and School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Fu-jen Catholic University, New Taipei City, Taiwan; 2Department of Dentistry, Cardinal Tien Hospital and School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City, Taiwan; 3Medical Research Center, Cardinal Tien Hospital and School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City, Taiwan; 4Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Chi Mei Medical Center, Liouying, Taiwan; 5Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Tri-service General Hospital, Institute of Undersea and Hyperbaric Medicine, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan
*These authors contributed equally to this work
Background: Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is a precursor of active tuberculosis diseases and an important issue in the United States and worldwide. The association between vitamin D deficiency and LTBI is poorly understood.
Methods: From 2011 to 2012, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) assessed LTBI (according to tuberculin skin testing and QuantiFERON®,-TB Gold In-Tube) and measured serum levels of vitamin D. We evaluated the association between LTBI and vitamin D using multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for known confounders.
Results: The LTBI group had a lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level than the non-LTBI group (p=0.0012). The adjusted risk of LTBI was significantly higher among participants with serum 25(OH)D levels <12 ng/ml (adjusted OR [aOR], 2.27; 95% CI, 1.40–3.66) and 12–19 ng/ml (aOR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.25–2.46) compared to those with a level ≥30 ng/ml. The higher risk of LTBI among the participants with serum 25(OH)D levels <12 ng/ml and 12–19 ng/ml remained unchanged in both male and summer season subgroups.
Conclusions: A low serum 25(OH)D level was significantly associated with the risk of LTBI in this US cohort.
Keywords: latent tuberculosis infection, NHANES, risk, vitamin D
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