Association Between Sodium Density and Grip Strength Among Older Korean Adults: A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study
Received 22 August 2019
Accepted for publication 14 November 2019
Published 13 December 2019 Volume 2019:14 Pages 2163—2171
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Richard Walker
Hye-Mi Noh,1 Yong Soon Park,2 Hae-Jeung Lee,3 Yong Kyun Roh,4 Hong Ji Song1
1Department of Family Medicine, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Anyang, Gyeonggi-Do, Republic of Korea; 2Department of Family Medicine, Chuncheon Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon, Republic of Korea; 3Department of Food & Nutrition, College of Bionano, Gachon University, Seongnam, Gyeonggi-Do, Republic of Korea; 4Department of Family Medicine, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea
Correspondence: Hong Ji Song
Department of Family Medicine, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University, Anyang, Gyeonggi-Do 431-796, Republic of Korea
Yong Kyun Roh
Department of Family Medicine, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul 150-950, Republic of Korea
Purpose: Handgrip strength is a key diagnostic criterion for sarcopenia, and sodium is an essential mineral for muscle contraction. We investigated the association between grip strength and sodium intake using sodium density.
Patients and methods: A total of 2982 older adults (aged ≥65 years) from the 2014–2016 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were included. Dietary intake was assessed by a 24 hr dietary recall, and grip strength was measured using a digital grip strength dynamometer. Based on the recommendation of the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia, low grip strength (dynapenia) was defined as <26 kg for men and <18 kg for women. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to estimate the adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) and to investigate the association between the quartiles of sodium per calorie (mg/1000 kcal; sodium density) and dynapenia.
Results: A total of 577 subjects (19.3%) had dynapenia. Subjects in the second quartile of sodium density had the lowest prevalence of dynapenia and were defined as the reference group. Among women, those in the highest quartile of sodium density showed a significantly higher risk for dynapenia (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.10–2.07). ORs in the first and third quartiles of sodium density were 1.01 (95% CI 0.74–1.38) and 1.18 (95% CI 0.89–1.58), respectively. However, there was no association between sodium density and dynapenia in men.
Conclusion: High sodium density was associated with dynapenia in older women. A balanced diet of minerals is important to preserve muscle strength among older adults.
Keywords: hand strength, sarcopenia, sodium
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