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Assessment of the Management of Diarrhoea Among Children Under Five in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Authors Tsige AG, Nedi T, Bacha T

Received 23 December 2019

Accepted for publication 1 April 2020

Published 7 May 2020 Volume 2020:11 Pages 135—143

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/PHMT.S243513

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Roosy Aulakh


Arega Gashaw Tsige,1 Teshome Nedi,2 Tigist Bacha3

1Department of Pharmacy, College of Health Sciences, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia; 2Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 3Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Correspondence: Arega Gashaw Tsige Email arega.gashaw@mu.edu.et

Purpose: Irrational antibiotic use is a worldwide problem. One of the main reasons for excessive use of antibiotics is the failure to follow the clinical guidelines. Inappropriate use of antibiotics for infectious diarrhea is associated with the risk of increasing the development of antimicrobial resistance and the cost of health care. We therefore pursued to assess the appropriateness of the management of diarrhea in children in Addis Ababa.
Materials and Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted in the health centers of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, between September 2014 and February 2015. Demographic characteristics, signs of dehydration, stool characteristics, drug types and other relevant information have been collected. Data analysis was performed using version 20 of the SPSS. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between dependent and independent variables. Indicators for the appropriateness of diarrhoea management have been established on the basis of the Standard Treatment Guideline and the guidelines of the World Health Organization.
Results: A total of 803 medical records of children have been checked. Of this, 54.4% had received inappropriate management. At least one antimicrobial was prescribed to 73.2% of the children who visited the health centres. Oral rehydration solution (ORS) and zinc were prescribed only in 66.7% and 47.5%, respectively. Appropriate management among children diagnosed with dysentery was found to be 6.38 times higher adjusted odds ratios (AOR=6.38 (3.11, 13.63)) than children with watery diarrhea. Although antibiotics are prescribed inappropriately for most children, it is appropriate when the diarrhea is bloody. Appropriate management of diarrhoea among infants aged 2– 11 months was 54% less compared to children aged 12– 59 months (AOR=0.46 (0.24, 0.90)).
Conclusion: The magnitude of inadequate antibiotic prescription while managing diarrhoea in our setting was high. On the contrary, a low prescribing rate of ORS and zinc was observed. Our result highlights the need for urgent action to prevent the development of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms. Health-care professionals should have clear information on the risks of inadequate diarrhoea treatment in children under five.

Keywords: under-five children, diarrhoea management, antimicrobial

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