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Assessment of the effectiveness of PMTCT program in eight service delivery points in North Central Nigeria

Authors Oleribe OO, Enenche E, Udofia D, Ekom E, Osita-Oleribe PI, Kim JU, Taylor-Robinson SD

Received 21 November 2017

Accepted for publication 11 August 2018

Published 20 November 2018 Volume 2018:10 Pages 253—259

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/HIV.S157685

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Andrew Yee

Peer reviewer comments 4

Editor who approved publication: Professor Bassel Sawaya


Obinna Ositadimma Oleribe,1 Ede Enenche,1 Deborah Udofia,1 Ekei Ekom,1 Princess Ifunanya Osita-Oleribe,1 Jin Un Kim,2 Simon David Taylor-Robinson2

1Excellence and Friends Management Care Centre (EFMC), Abuja, Nigeria; 2Hepatology Unit, Imperial College London, London, UK

Background: Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV is one of the commonest avenues through which infants are infected with HIV. To achieve an HIV-free generation, MTCT of HIV should be eliminated. Nigeria began prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services 13 years ago, but it still contributes to over one-third of global MTCT burden. We set out to explore and define the effectiveness of PMTCT in selected sites in North Central Nigeria.
Methods: We conducted a retrospective secondary data analysis at eight service delivery points in two states. One thousand four hundred and fifty-four mother–infant pair data sets from 2012 to 2016 were extracted and analyzed. Maternal/infant antiretroviral (ARV) services, early infant diagnosis (EID), and final outcomes were reviewed to examine the predictors of MTCT of HIV in these centers.
Results: We retrieved 1,454 mother–infant pair data sets. While 89.5% (1,302) of positive pregnant women (PPW) and 92.2% (1,340) of HIV-exposed infants (HEIs) received ARV prophylaxis/ARV treatment (ART), 88.4% (1,285) infants were breastfed with 32.5% still receiving breast milk at the time of dry blood spot (DBS) collection. EID PCR positivity rate was 3.5% (range, 0.0%–11.1%). Facility of delivery (X2=24.99, P<0.00), mother on ARV (X2=48.8, P<0.00), mother having received ARV prophylaxis (X2=89.59, P<0.00), infant having received ARV prophylaxis (X2=58.56, P<0.00), and baby having received cotrimoxazole (X2=55.24, P<0.00) all significantly prevented positive EID results. However, mode of delivery and breastfeeding were not significantly associated with positive EID results.
Conclusion: This study supports PMTCT services as it minimizes the transfer of HIV from infected mothers to HEIs. To eliminate HIV and achieve zero new HIV infections, every HIV-positive pregnant woman should receive ARV prophylaxis and should be supported postdelivery to prevent transfer of infection to the newborn. Also, HEIs should receive timely ARV and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis.

Keywords: antiretroviral therapy, infectious diseases, prevention of mother-to-child transmission, women, Africa

Creative Commons License This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License. The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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