Back to Journals » Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment » Volume 9

Antiphospholipid syndrome presenting as progressive neuropsychiatric disorders: two case reports

Authors Li C, Chou M, Liu C, Lai C

Received 18 February 2013

Accepted for publication 20 March 2013

Published 23 May 2013 Volume 2013:9 Pages 739—742


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Chien-Hsun Li,1–3 Mei-Chuan Chou,2,4 Ching-Kuan Liu,2,3 Chiou-Lian Lai2,3

1Department of Neurology, Fooyin University Hospital, Pingtung, Taiwan; 2Department of Neurology, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 3Department of and Master’s Program in Neurology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 4Department of Neurology, Kaohsiung Municipal Ta-Tung Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

Abstract: The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a rare form of autoimmune coagulopathy. In this syndrome, the most common neurologic abnormality is transient ischemic attack. This can be easily overlooked if a patient presents with progressive neuropsychiatric disorders, such as depression or dementia. We report two cases of young women, aged 35 and 22 years, presenting with progressive depression and mental decline over a certain period. The neuropsychological diagnoses of the two patients were, respectively, dementia with disinhibition and borderline dementia with depression. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple old infarcts with encephalomalacia in the former case, and only one cortical hemorrhagic infarction, over the right temporoparietal lobe, observed in the latter case. The outcomes of the two cases were also very different. Progressive neuropsychiatric disorders are increasingly observed in the young; therefore, APS and other autoimmune diseases should be considered during the differential diagnosis. Brain imaging examinations may prevent a delay in the detection of a structural lesion and facilitate the early intervention with good prognosis. Careful investigations by experts from different disciplines are always encouraged in complicated cases.

Keywords: autoimmune disease, brain imaging, dementia, depression, cerebrovascular disease

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]


Other article by this author:

Adjunct effect of music therapy on cognition in Alzheimer’s disease in Taiwan: a pilot study

Li CH, Liu CK, Yang YH, Chou MC, Chen CH, Lai CL

Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 2015, 11:291-296

Published Date: 4 February 2015

Readers of this article also read:

Green synthesis of water-soluble nontoxic polymeric nanocomposites containing silver nanoparticles

Prozorova GF, Pozdnyakov AS, Kuznetsova NP, Korzhova SA, Emel’yanov AI, Ermakova TG, Fadeeva TV, Sosedova LM

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2014, 9:1883-1889

Published Date: 16 April 2014

Methacrylic-based nanogels for the pH-sensitive delivery of 5-Fluorouracil in the colon

Ashwanikumar N, Kumar NA, Nair SA, Kumar GS

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:5769-5779

Published Date: 15 November 2012

A novel preparation method for silicone oil nanoemulsions and its application for coating hair with silicone

Hu Z, Liao M, Chen Y, Cai Y, Meng L, Liu Y, Lv N, Liu Z, Yuan W

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:5719-5724

Published Date: 12 November 2012

Cross-linked acrylic hydrogel for the controlled delivery of hydrophobic drugs in cancer therapy

Deepa G, Thulasidasan AK, Anto RJ, Pillai JJ, Kumar GS

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:4077-4088

Published Date: 27 July 2012

Crystallization after intravitreal ganciclovir injection

Pitipol Choopong, Nattaporn Tesavibul, Nattawut Rodanant

Clinical Ophthalmology 2010, 4:709-711

Published Date: 14 July 2010