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Antimetastatic effect of epigenetic drugs, hydralazine and valproic acid, in Ras-transformed NIH 3T3 cells

Authors Pérez-Cárdenas E, Taja-Chayeb L, Trejo-Becerril C, Chanona-Vilchis J, Chávez-Blanco A, Domínguez-Gómez G, Langley E, García-Carrancá A, Dueñas-González A

Received 14 September 2018

Accepted for publication 9 November 2018

Published 7 December 2018 Volume 2018:11 Pages 8823—8833

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/OTT.S187306

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Cristina Weinberg

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Sanjay Singh


Enrique Pérez-Cárdenas,1 Lucía Taja-Chayeb,1 Catalina Trejo-Becerril,1 José Chanona-Vilchis,2 Alma Chávez-Blanco,1 Guadalupe Domínguez-Gómez,1 Elizabeth Langley,1 Alejandro García-Carrancá,3,4 Alfonso Dueñas-González3,4

1Division of Basic Research, Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, Mexico City, Mexico; 2Department of Pathology, Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, Mexico City, Mexico; 3Unit of Biomedical Research on Cancer, Biomedical Research Institute, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico; 4Unit of Biomedical Research on Cancer, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Mexico City, Mexico

Introduction: Metastasis involves the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations leading to activation of prometastatic genes and inactivation of antimetastatic genes. Among epigenetic alterations, DNA hypermethylation and histone hypoacetylation are the focus of intense translational research because their pharmacological inhibition has been shown to produce antineoplastic activity in a variety of experimental models.
Aims: This study aimed to evaluate the antimetastatic effect of the DNA-methylation inhibitor, hydralazine, and the histone deacetylase inhibitor, valproic acid.
Methods: NIH 3T3-Ras murine cells were treated with hydralazine and valproic acid to evaluate their effects upon cell proliferation, cell motility, chemotaxis, gelatinase activity, and gene expression. Lung metastases were developed by intravenous injection of NIH 3T3-Ras cells in BALB/c nu/nu mice and then treated with the drug combination.
Results: Treatment induced a growth-inhibitory effect on NIH 3T3-Ras cells, showed a trend toward increased gelatinase activity of MMP2 and MMP9, and inhibited chemotaxis and cell motility. The combination led to a strong antimetastatic effect in lungs of nude mice.
Conclusion: Hydralazine and valproic acid, two repositioned drugs as epigenetic agents, exhibit antimetastatic effects in vitro and in vivo and hold potential for cancer treatment.

Keywords: hydralazine, valproic acid, epigenetics, metastasis, ras

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