Annatto-derived tocotrienol stimulates osteogenic activity in preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells: a temporal sequential study
Received 22 March 2018
Accepted for publication 18 April 2018
Published 13 June 2018 Volume 2018:12 Pages 1715—1726
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Anastasios Lymperopoulos
Wan Nuraini Wan Hasan,1 Norzana Abd Ghafar,2 Kok-Yong Chin,1 Soelaiman Ima-Nirwana1
1Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Jalan Yaacob Latif, Bandar Tun Razak, Cheras, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Jalan Yaacob Latif, Bandar Tun Razak, Cheras, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Purpose: Annatto-derived tocotrienol (AnTT) has been shown to improve bone formation in animal models of osteoporosis. However, detailed studies of the effects of AnTT on preosteoblastic cells were limited. This study was conducted to investigate the osteogenic effect of AnTT on preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells in a time-dependent manner.
Materials and methods: Murine MC3T3-E1 preosteoblastic cells were cultured in the different concentrations of AnTT (0.001–1 µg/mL) up to 24 days. Expression of osteoblastic differentiation markers was measured by qPCR (osterix [OSX], collagen 1 alpha 1 [COL1α1], alkaline phosphatase [ALP], and osteocalcin [OCN]) and by fluorometric assay for ALP activity. Detection of collagen and mineralized nodules was done via Direct Red staining and Alizarin Red staining, respectively.
Results: The results showed that osteoblastic differentiation-related genes, such as OSX, COL1α1, ALP, and OCN, were significantly increased in the AnTT-treated groups compared to the vehicle group in a time-dependent manner (P<0.05). Type 1 collagen level was increased from day 3 to day 15 in the AnTT-treated groups, while ALP activity was increased from day 9 to day 21 in the AnTT-treated groups (P<0.05). Enhanced mineralization was observed in the AnTT-treated groups via increasing Alizarin Red staining from day 3 to day 21 (P<0.05).
Conclusion: Our results suggest that AnTT enhances the osteogenic activity by promoting the bone formation-related genes and proteins in a temporal and sequential manner.
Keywords: bone, differentiation, osteoporosis, tocotrienol, vitamin E
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