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Anemia and Related Factors Among Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Experienced Children in Hawassa Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Southern Ethiopia: Emphasis on Patient Management

Authors Fenta DA, Nuru MM, Yemane T, Asres Y, Wube TB

Received 13 September 2019

Accepted for publication 17 February 2020

Published 13 March 2020 Volume 2020:12 Pages 49—56


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Siew Siang Chua

Demissie Assegu Fenta,1 Metsihet Mohammed Nuru,1 Tilahun Yemane,2 Yaregal Asres,3 Temesgen Bizuayehu Wube1

1School of Medical Laboratory, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia; 2School of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia; 3Department of Medical Laboratory, College of Medicine and Health Science, Baherdar University, Baherdar, Ethiopia

Correspondence: Demissie Assegu Fenta
School of Medical Laboratory, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia
Tel +251 911 02 01 89

Background: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and its therapy cause a variety of hematological abnormalities that have been known to be one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in HIV-positive children. One of the commonly observed hematologic manifestations in HIV-positive children is anemia and it has a multifactorial source. We intended to assess the prevalence, as well as its related factors of anemia among Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART), experienced children.
Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was employed at Hawassa comprehensive specialized hospital from February 15-June 15, 2018. Overall, 273 HAART-practiced children were included in the study. Socio-demographic variables and clinical data were collected using a standard and pretested questionnaire. Medical records were reviewed for each study participant using a standard checklist. Blood specimens were collected and examined for complete blood count, CD4 cell count and blood film for hemoparasites and morphological classification of anemia, whereas stool specimens were collected and examined for intestinal parasites. Data were entered into Epidata and transferred to SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science) version 20 software. Descriptive analysis was done for prevalence and binary and multivariate logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with anemia. Statistical significance was stated at P-value< 0.05.
Results: The overall prevalence of anemia in this study was 11.4%. Morphologically the predominant anemia was Normocytic Normochromic anemia which accounted for 64.5%. In the current study, children within the age group of < 7years (AOR: 3, CI: 1.2– 7.5, P=0.02), those who were rural residents (AOR: 2.6, CI: 1.0– 6.6, P=0.042) and those with viral load > 150 copies/mL (AOR: 3.4, CI: 1.36– 8.3, P=0.009) were found to be significantly associated with anemia.
Conclusion: The prevalence of anemia in this study was 11.4%. It was significantly associated with different factors such as age, residence and viral load. Therefore, regular follow-up management should be emphasized for HAART-experienced children. Hence, there is a need for a longitudinal study to be conducted further to explore the causes of anemia due to HIV and the pattern of hemoglobin changes with HAART- experienced children will be very important.

Keywords: anemia, children, HIV, rural residents, viral load, HAART, Hawassa, Ethiopia

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