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Analysis of the presence or absence of atrophy of the subgenual and subcallosal cingulate cortices using voxel-based morphometry on MRI is useful to select prescriptions for patients with depressive symptoms

Authors Niida A, Niida R, Matsuda H, Motomura M, Uechi A

Received 15 August 2014

Accepted for publication 10 October 2014

Published 3 December 2014 Volume 2014:7 Pages 513—524

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S72736

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 4

Editor who approved publication: Dr Scott Fraser

Akira Niida,1 Richi Niida,2 Hiroshi Matsuda,3 Makoto Motomura,4 Akihiko Uechi5

1Department of Radiology, Nanbu Hospital, Itoman City, Okinawa, Japan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Nanto Clinic, Urasoe City, Okinawa, Japan; 3Integrative Brain Imaging Center, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira City, Tokyo, Japan; 4Department of Human Sciences, University of the Ryukyus, Nakagami County, Okinawa, Japan; 5Cognitive Neuroscience Research Project, Kansai Gaidai University, Hirakata City, Osaka, Japan

Objective: We objectively evaluated the presence or absence of atrophy of the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) and the subcallosal anterior cingulate cortex (scACC), using new voxel-based morphometry (VBM) software employing Statistical Parametric Mapping software v8 and diffeomorphic anatomic registration through an exponentiated lie algebra. We prepared a database covering young-mature adulthood and investigated the clinical usefulness of the evaluation.
Subjects and methods: One hundred seven patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), 74 patients with bipolar disorder (BD), and 240 healthy control subjects underwent 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging scanning. Using new VBM software and databases covering young-mature adults and the elderly, target volumes of interest were set in the sgACC and scACC, four indicators (severity, extent, ratio, and whole-brain extent) were determined, and the presence or absence of atrophy of the sgACC and scACC was evaluated on the basis of the indicators. In addition, the relationships between the presence or absence of atrophy of the sgACC and scACC and performance of diagnosing MDD and BD and therapeutic drugs were investigated.
Results: It was clarified that the disease is likely to be MDD when atrophy is detected in the sgACC, and likely to be BD when no atrophy is detected in the sgACC but is detected in the scACC. Regarding the relationship with therapeutic drugs, it was clarified that, when atrophy is detected in both the sgACC and the scACC, concomitant administration of mood stabilizers and atypical antipsychotics acting as dopamine-system stabilizers is necessary in many cases.
Conclusion: VBM on magnetic resonance imaging enabled automatic analysis of atrophy in the sgACC and scACC, and findings obtained by this procedure are useful not only for differentiation of MDD and BD patients but also for selection of prescriptions.

Keywords: major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, MRI, subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, subcallosal anterior cingulate cortex, voxel-based morphometry

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