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Ambulatory blood pressure parameters after canrenone addition to existing treatment regimens with maximum tolerated dose of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers plus hydrochlorothiazide in uncontrolled hypertensive patients

Authors Guasti L, Gaudio G, Lupi A, D'Avino M, Sala C, Mugellini A, Vulpis V, Felis S, Sarzani R, Vanasia M, Maffioli P, Derosa G

Received 15 February 2017

Accepted for publication 10 April 2017

Published 4 August 2017 Volume 2017:11 Pages 2293—2300

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/DDDT.S134826

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Lucy Goodman

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Anastasios Lymperopoulos

Luigina Guasti,1,* Giovanni Gaudio,2,* Alessandro Lupi,3 Marinella D’Avino,4 Carla Sala,5,6 Amedeo Mugellini,7 Vito Vulpis,8 Salvatore Felis,9 Riccardo Sarzani,10,11 Massimo Vanasia,12 Pamela Maffioli,7 Giuseppe Derosa7

1Research Center on Dyslipidemia, Internal Medicine 1, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy; 2Internal Medicine Division, Ospedale Angelo Bellini, ASST Valle Olona Somma, Varese, Italy; 3Cardiology Unit, ASL VCO Verbania-Domodossola, Verbania, Italy; 4Unit for the Treatment of Arterial Hypertension, Ospedale Cardarelli, Napoli, Italy; 5Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, Milano, Italy; 6Cardiovascular Unit, Fondazione IRCCSS Policlinico, Milano, Italy; 7Department of Internal Medicine and Therapeutics, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy; 8Unit for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Arterial Hypertension, Department of Internal Medicine, Policlinico di Bari, Bari, Italy; 9Cardiology Unit, Ospedale Garibaldi, Catania, Italy; 10ESH Center of Hypertension, Internal Medicine and Geriatrics, University Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy; 11IRCCS-INRCA, Ancona, Italy; 12THERABEL GiEnne Pharma, Milano, Italy

*These authors contributed equally to this work

Background: Blockade of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system is a cornerstone in cardiovascular disease prevention and hypertension treatment. The relevance of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) has been widely confirmed for both increasing the accuracy of blood pressure (BP) measurements, particularly in pharmacological trials, and focusing on 24 h BP prognostic parameters. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of canrenone addition on ambulatory BP in uncontrolled hypertensive patients already treated with the highest tolerated dose of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) antagonists plus hydrochlorothiazide (HCT).
Methods: ABPM was performed at baseline and after 3 months of combination therapy in 158 outpatients with stage 1 or 2 hypertension who were randomized to add canrenone (50 or 100 mg) to the pre-existing therapy with ACE inhibitors or AT1R antagonists plus HCT. Twenty-four-hour systolic and diastolic BPs were considered normalized when the values were <130 and <80 mmHg, respectively.
Results: The addition of canrenone was associated with a reduction in systolic and diastolic BPs (24 h and daytime and nighttime; P<0.001), mean arterial pressures (P<0.001), and pulse pressures (P<0.01). The Δ 24 h systolic/diastolic BPs were -13.5±11.2/-8±8 mmHg and -16.1±13.5/-11.2±8.3 mmHg (50 and 100 mg/day, respectively). In the 50 mg arm, the 24 h systolic and diastolic BPs were normalized in 67.5% and 74% of the patients, respectively, and in 61.6% and 68.5% of the patients in the 100 mg arm, respectively (P<0.05; P= not significant for 50 vs 100 mg). The percentage of patients whose nocturnal decrease was >10% with respect to diurnal values did not change during combination therapy.
Conclusion: Canrenone addition to ACE inhibitors or AT1R antagonists plus HCT was associated with a significant reduction of 24 h BP and to an increased number of patients meeting 24 h ABPM targets in a clinical setting of uncontrolled stage 1 or 2 hypertension.

Keywords: ambulatory blood pressure, canrenone, RAAS, ACE inhibitors, AT1R antagonist

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