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Alveolar­–capillary reserve during exercise in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Authors Behnia M, Wheatley CM, Avolio A, Johnson BD

Received 26 May 2017

Accepted for publication 7 September 2017

Published 24 October 2017 Volume 2017:12 Pages 3115—3122

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S142523

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Charles Downs

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Richard Russell

Mehrdad Behnia,1 Courtney M Wheatley,2 Alberto Avolio,3 Bruce D Johnson2

1Division of Critical Care, Florida Hospital, Orlando, FL, 2Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ, USA; 3Australian School of Advanced Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia

Background: Factors limiting exercise in patients with COPD are complex. With evidence for accelerated pulmonary vascular aging, destruction of alveolar–capillary bed, and hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, the ability to functionally expand surface area during exercise may become a primary limitation.
Purpose: To quantify measures of alveolar–capillary recruitment during exercise and the relationship to exercise capacity in a cohort of COPD patients.
Methods: Thirty-two subjects gave consent (53% male, with mean ± standard deviation age 66±9 years, smoking 35±29 pack-years, and Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) classification of 0–4: 2.3±0.8), filled out the St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) to measure quality of life, had a complete blood count drawn, and underwent spirometry. The intrabreath (IB) technique for lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (IBDLCO) and pulmonary blood flow (IBQc, at rest) was also performed. Subsequently, they completed a cycle ergometry test to exhaustion with measures of oxygen saturation and expired gases.
Results: Baseline average measures were 44±21 for SGRQ score and 58±11 for FEV1/FVC. Peak oxygen consumption (VO2) was 11.4±3.1 mL/kg/min (49% predicted). The mean resting IBDLCO was 9.7±5.4 mL/min/mmHg and IBQc was 4.7±0.9 L/min. At the first workload, heart rate (HR) increased to 92±11 bpm, VO2 was 8.3±1.4 mL/kg/min, and IBDLCO and IBQc increased by 46% and 43%, respectively, compared to resting values (p<0.01). The IBDLCO/Qc ratio averaged 2.0±1.1 at rest and remained constant during exercise with marked variation across subjects (range: 0.8–4.8). Ventilatory efficiency plateaued at 37±5 during exercise, partial pressure of mix expired CO2/partial pressure of end tidal CO2 ratio ranged from 0.63 to 0.67, while a noninvasive index of pulmonary capacitance, O2 pulse × PetCO2 (GxCap) rose to 138%. The exercise IBDLCO/Qc ratio was related to O2 pulse (VO2/HR, r=0.58, p<0.01), and subjects with the highest exercise IBDLCO/Qc ratio or the greatest rise from rest had the highest peak VO2 values (r=0.65 and 0.51, respectively, p<0.05). Of the noninvasive gas exchange measures of pulmonary vascular function, GxCap was most closely associated with DLCO, DLCO/Qc, and VO2 peak.
Conclusion: COPD patients who can expand gas exchange surface area as assessed with DLCO during exercise relative to pulmonary blood flow have a more preserved exercise capacity.

Keywords: airflow limitation, exercise intolerance, lung gas transfer, dyspnea, COPD, diffusion capacity, cardiopulmonary exercise testing

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