Back to Journals » International Journal of General Medicine » Volume 5

Aging, female sex, migration, elevated HDL-C, and inflammation are associated with prevalence of metabolic syndrome among African bank employees

Authors Gombet, Longo-Mbenza B, Ellenga-Mbolla, Ikama, Mokondjimobe, Kimbally-Kaky, Nkoua

Received 4 January 2012

Accepted for publication 21 January 2012

Published 8 June 2012 Volume 2012:5 Pages 495—503


Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 4

Thierry Gombet,1 Benjamin Longo-Mbenza,2 Bertrand Ellenga-Mbolla,1 Meo Stephane Ikama,3 Etienne Mokondjimobe,4 Gisele Kimbally-Kaky,3 Jean-Louis Nkoua,3
1Emergency Department, University Hospital Center of Brazzaville, Brazzaville, Congo; 2Faculty of Health Sciences, Walter Sisulu University, Mthatha, Eastern Cape, South Africa; 3Department of Cardiology and Internal Medicine, University Hospital Center of Brazzaville, Brazzaville, Congo; 4Laboratory of Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Brazzaville, Congo

Background: The objective of this study was to compare four different criteria for diagnosing metabolic syndrome (MS) and to correlate sociodemographic data, liver enzymes, lipids, inflammation, and insulin resistance with MS definitions.
Methods: This cross-sectional study included a random number of 126 African bank employees from Brazzaville, Congo.
Results: The prevalence of MS varied according to the different definitions used: 4.8% under World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, 8.7% under the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NECP-ATPIII) criteria, 14.3% under the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) for Europe, and 15.9% by the IDF for Central Africa. According to the IDF, specific cutoff points for the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, ≥13 mm at first hour and ≥30 mm at second hour, defined MS for Central Africa. The best agreement was observed between the IDF for Europe and the IDF for Central Africa (Kappa = 0.938; P < 0.0001) criteria. The worst agreements were between the WHO and IDF for Central Africa (Kappa = 0.419; P < 0.0001) criteria and between the WHO and IDF for Europe (Kappa = 0.462; P < 0.0001) criteria. The NECP-ATPIII criteria did not agree with either the IDF for Europe or the IDF for Central Africa criteria. There was a significant relationship between female sex, aging, elevated liver enzymes, elevated phospholipids, high homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and MS defined by the IDF for Central Africa.
Conclusion: The IDF definition of the MS modified for Central Africa provides higher prevalence estimates of MS than the estimates based on the NECP-ATPIII and IDF for Europe criteria. Liver enzymes, phospholipids, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance should be included in clinical practice to stratify cardiovascular disease risk among Africans.

Keywords: metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, inflammation, liver enzymes, atherosclerosis, sub-Saharan Africa

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]


Other articles by this author:

Nadir CD4+, religion, antiretroviral therapy, incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and increasing rates of obesity among black Africans with HIV disease

Mandina Ndona M, Longo-Mbenza B, Wumba R, Tandu Umba B, Buassa-bu-Tsumbu B, Mbula Mambimbi M, Odio Wobin T, Mbungu Fuele S

International Journal of General Medicine 2012, 5:983-990

Published Date: 23 November 2012

Inflammatory status hepatic enzymes and serum creatinine in HIV-, HIV+ and HIV-TB co-infected adult Central Africans

Mokondjimobe E, Longo-Mbenza B, Mampouya-Arrouse P, Parra HJ, Diatewa M

International Journal of General Medicine 2012, 5:961-965

Published Date: 15 November 2012

Helicobacter pylori infection is identified as a cardiovascular risk factor in Central Africans

Longo-Mbenza B, Nsenga JN, Mokondjimobe E, Gombet T, Assori IN, Ibara JR, Ellenga-Mbolla B, Vangu DN, Fuele SM

Vascular Health and Risk Management 2012, 8:455-461

Published Date: 15 August 2012

Epidemiology, clinical, immune, and molecular profiles of microsporidiosis and cryptosporidiosis among HIV/AIDS patients

Wumba R, Longo-Mbenza B, Menotti J, Mandina M, Kintoki F, Situakibanza NH, Kakicha MK, Zanga J, Mbanzulu-Makola K, Nseka T, Mukendi JP, Kendjo E, Sala J, Thellier M

International Journal of General Medicine 2012, 5:603-611

Published Date: 19 July 2012

Readers of this article also read:

Green synthesis of water-soluble nontoxic polymeric nanocomposites containing silver nanoparticles

Prozorova GF, Pozdnyakov AS, Kuznetsova NP, Korzhova SA, Emel’yanov AI, Ermakova TG, Fadeeva TV, Sosedova LM

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2014, 9:1883-1889

Published Date: 16 April 2014

Methacrylic-based nanogels for the pH-sensitive delivery of 5-Fluorouracil in the colon

Ashwanikumar N, Kumar NA, Nair SA, Kumar GS

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:5769-5779

Published Date: 15 November 2012

A novel preparation method for silicone oil nanoemulsions and its application for coating hair with silicone

Hu Z, Liao M, Chen Y, Cai Y, Meng L, Liu Y, Lv N, Liu Z, Yuan W

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:5719-5724

Published Date: 12 November 2012

Cross-linked acrylic hydrogel for the controlled delivery of hydrophobic drugs in cancer therapy

Deepa G, Thulasidasan AK, Anto RJ, Pillai JJ, Kumar GS

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:4077-4088

Published Date: 27 July 2012

Crystallization after intravitreal ganciclovir injection

Pitipol Choopong, Nattaporn Tesavibul, Nattawut Rodanant

Clinical Ophthalmology 2010, 4:709-711

Published Date: 14 July 2010