Active smoking and COPD phenotype: distribution and impact on prognostic factors
Received 22 February 2017
Accepted for publication 23 May 2017
Published 6 July 2017 Volume 2017:12 Pages 1989—1999
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Charles Downs
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Dr Richard Russell
Juan Antonio Riesco,1,2 Bernardino Alcázar,3 Juan Antonio Trigueros,4 Anna Campuzano,5 Joselín Pérez,5 José Luis Lorenzo5
1Pulmonology Department, Hospital San Pedro de Alcántara, 2Centro de Investigación en Red de Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES), Cáceres, 3Pulmonology Department, Hospital La Loja, Granada, 4Centro de Salud de Menasalvas, Toledo, 5Grupo Ferrer Internacional, Barcelona, Spain
Purpose: Smoking can affect both the phenotypic expression of COPD and factors such as disease severity, quality of life, and comorbidities. Our objective was to evaluate if the impact of active smoking on these factors varies according to the disease phenotype.
Patients and methods: This was a Spanish, observational, cross-sectional, multicenter study of patients with a diagnosis of COPD. Smoking rates were described among four different phenotypes (non-exacerbators, asthma-COPD overlap syndrome [ACOS], exacerbators with emphysema, and exacerbators with chronic bronchitis), and correlated with disease severity (body mass index, obstruction, dyspnea and exacerbations [BODEx] index and dyspnea grade), quality of life according to the COPD assessment test (CAT), and presence of comorbidities, according to phenotypic expression.
Results: In total, 1,610 patients were recruited, of whom 46.70% were classified as non-exacerbators, 14.53% as ACOS, 16.37% as exacerbators with emphysema, and 22.40% as exacerbators with chronic bronchitis. Smokers were predominant in the latter 2 groups (58.91% and 57.67%, respectively, P=0.03). Active smoking was significantly associated with better quality of life and a higher dyspnea grade, although differences were observed depending on clinical phenotype.
Conclusion: Active smoking is more common among exacerbator phenotypes and appears to affect quality of life and dyspnea grade differently, depending on the clinical expression of the disease.
Keywords: COPD, phenotype, smoking, prognostic factors, quality of life
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