A Systematic Review on Drug Resistant Urinary Tract Infection Among Pregnant Women in Developing Countries in Africa and Asia; 2005–2016
Received 20 February 2020
Accepted for publication 1 May 2020
Published 18 May 2020 Volume 2020:13 Pages 1465—1477
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Professor Suresh Antony
Melaku Ashagrie Belete,1 Muthupandian Saravanan2
1Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Medicine and Health Science, Wollo University, Dessie 1145, Ethiopia; 2Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Division of Biomedical Sciences, School of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Mekelle University, Mekelle, 1871, Ethiopia
Correspondence: Melaku Ashagrie Belete Tel +251 913867849
Muthupandian Saravanan Tel +251 924381557
Background: Urinary tract infection is one of the most common health problems during pregnancy. It is most commonly reported among pregnant women and is a known reason of morbidity during pregnancy worldwide, predominantly in developing countries. The etiological agents include Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species, Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase negative Staphylococci, Proteus mirabilis, Enterococcus species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter species, non-hemolytic streptococci, Citrobacter species and others. Different risk factors expose pregnant women to urinary tract infection. Drug resistance by uropathogenic bacteria is a current problem of the world. This study was aimed at reviewing the prevalence of bacterial uropathogens and their antimicrobial resistance patterns among pregnant women in developing countries in Asia and Africa, during the past decade.
Methods: A systematic literature search was accomplished to identify published studies between January 2005 and November 2016. The literature search strategy in this paper included searching PubMed, PMC, Science Direct, Springer open, Google scholar and BioMed Central databases.
Results: The overall prevalence of UTI among pregnant women was 13.5%. Both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from all eligible studies. Gram-negative bacteria (83.7%) accounted for majority of infections while Gram positives accounted for 15.9%. Among the isolated bacteria, Escherichia coli was the most predominant uropathogen; it was shown to be present in all 26 eligible studies that were included in this review. Four studies from Africa and four from Asia were reviewed for antimicrobial resistance patterns of uropathogenic bacteria. In most of the regions, almost all the bacterial uropathogens had high resistance to ampicillin (67.2%) whereas all the strains showed relative sensitivity to ciprofloxacin (71.2%), nitrofurantoin (65%) and ceftriaxone (74.1%).
Conclusion: The prevalence of UTI in the selected regions of the two continents is different. A significant prevalence of UTI among pregnant women is mainly observed in Africa and Asia. Uropathogenic bacteria showed resistance to antimicrobial drugs that are regularly used in developing countries. This may show the need to incorporate culture and drug susceptibility tests into the routine antenatal care for pregnant women and drug resistance should be monitored.
Keywords: urinary tract infection, bacterial profile, pregnant women, antimicrobial resistance, developing countries
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