A novel combination approach of human polyclonal IVIG and antibiotics against multidrug-resistant Gram-positive bacteria
Authors Sallam MM, Abou-Aisha K, El-Azizi M
Received 20 August 2016
Accepted for publication 4 November 2016
Published 8 December 2016 Volume 2016:9 Pages 301—311
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Akshita Wason
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Professor Suresh Antony
Mariam Madkour Sallam, Khaled Abou-Aisha, Mohamed El-Azizi
Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, German University in Cairo, New Cairo City, Cairo, Egypt
Background: Gram-positive bacteria, especially methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and enterococci, have shown a remarkable ability to develop resistance to antimicrobial agents.
Objective: We aimed to assess possible enhancement of the antimicrobial activity of vancomycin, amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin by human polyclonal intravenous immunoglobulin G (IVIG) against 34 multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial isolates, including MRSA, Enterococcus faecium, and Enterococcus faecalis.
Materials and methods: Double combinations of the antibiotics with the IVIG were assessed by checkerboard assay, where the interaction was evaluated with respect to the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the antibiotics. The results of the checkerboard assay were verified in vitro using time-kill assay and in vivo using an invasive sepsis murine model.
Results: The checkerboard assay showed that IVIG enhanced the antimicrobial activity of amoxicillin and clarithromycin against isolates from the three groups of bacteria, which were resistant to the same antibiotics when tested in the absence of IVIG. The efficacy of vancomycin against 15% of the tested isolates was enhanced when it was combined with the antibodies. Antagonism was demonstrated in 47% of the E. faecalis isolates when clarithromycin was combined with the IVIG. Synergism was proved in the time-kill assay when amoxicillin was combined with the antibodies; meanwhile, antagonism was not demonstrated in all tested combinations, even in combinations that showed such response in checkerboard assay.
Conclusion: The suggested approach is promising and could be helpful to enhance the antimicrobial activity of not only effective antibiotics but also antibiotics that have been proven to be ineffective against MDR bacteria. To our knowledge, this combinatorial approach against MDR bacteria, such as MRSA and enterococci, has not been investigated before.
Keywords: human polyclonal IVIG, MRSA, vancomycin, amoxicillin, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, nonconventional antimicrobials, multidrug resistance
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