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10H-3,6-Diazaphenothiazine induces G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and caspase-dependent apoptosis and inhibits cell invasion of A2780 ovarian carcinoma cells through the regulation of NF-κB and (BIRC6-XIAP) complexes

Authors Zhang J, Ming C, Zhang W, Okechukwu PN, Morak-Młodawska B, Pluta K, Jeleń M, Akim AM, Ang KP, Ooi KK

Received 20 June 2017

Accepted for publication 17 August 2017

Published 24 October 2017 Volume 2017:11 Pages 3045—3063


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Qiongyu Guo

Jianxin Zhang,1 Chen Ming,2 Wenzhi Zhang,3 Patrick Nwabueze Okechukwu,4 Beata Morak-Młodawska,5 Krystian Pluta,5 Małgorzata Jeleń,5 Abdah Md Akim,6 Kok-Pian Ang,3 Kah Kooi Ooi6,7

1Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Capital Medical University Affiliated Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Beijing, 2Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Taizhou People’s Hospital, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China; 3Innoresearch, Subang Jaya, 4Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, UCSI University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 5Department of Organic Chemistry, School of Pharmacy with the Division of Laboratory Medicine, The Medical University of Silesia, Sosnowiec, Poland; 6Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, 7Research Centre for Crystaline Materials, School of Science and Technology, Sunway University, Petaling Jaya, Malaysia

Abstract: The asymptomatic properties and high treatment resistance of ovarian cancer result in poor treatment outcomes and high mortality rates. Although the fundamental chemotherapy provides promising anticancer activities, it is associated with severe side effects. The derivative of phenothiazine, namely, 10H-3,6-diazaphenothiazine (PTZ), was synthesized and reported with ideal anticancer effects in a previous paper. In this study, detailed anticancer properties of PTZ was examined on A2780 ovarian cancer cells by investigating the cytotoxicity profiles, mechanism of apoptosis, and cell invasion. Research outcomes revealed PTZ-induced dose-dependent inhibition on A2780 cancer cells (IC50 =0.62 µM), with significant less cytotoxicity toward HEK293 normal kidney cells and H9C2 normal heart cells. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and polarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) suggests PTZ-induced cell death through oxidative damage. The RT2 Profiler PCR Array on apoptosis pathway demonstrated PTZ-induced apoptosis via intrinsic (mitochondria-dependent) and extrinsic (cell death receptor-dependent) pathway. Inhibition of NF-κB and subsequent inhibition of (BIRC6-XIAP) complex activities reduced the invasion rate of A2780 cancer cells penetrating through the Matrigel™ Invasion Chamber. Lastly, the cell cycle analysis hypothesizes that the compound is cytostatic and significantly arrests cell proliferation at G2/M phase. Hence, the exploration of the underlying anticancer mechanism of PTZ suggested its usage as promising chemotherapeutic agent.

Keywords: anticancer, programmed cell death, ovarian cancer, oxidative damage, mitochondrial function disruption, cancer cell invasion

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