Which drugs cause treatment-related problems? Analysis of 10,672 problems within the outpatient setting
Received 19 July 2018
Accepted for publication 26 September 2018
Published 16 November 2018 Volume 2018:14 Pages 2273—2281
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Amy Norman
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Professor Garry Walsh
Ghaith M Al-Taani,1 Sayer I Al-Azzam,2 Karem H Alzoubi,2 Mamoon A Aldeyab3
1Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmacy, Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan; 2Faculty of Pharmacy, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan; 3School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science, University of Ulster, Coleraine, County Londonderry, UK
Background: Treatment-related problems (TRPs) may pose risks for patients if unaddressed. With the increased complexity of health care, it is important to target pharmacists’ efforts to patients that are at high risk for TRPs.
Objectives: The present study aimed to identify medications most commonly associated with TRPs.
Setting: Outpatient departments of five public and teaching hospitals in Jordan.
Method: TRPs and drugs most commonly implicated with TRPs were assessed for patients recruited from outpatient clinics in five major hospitals in Jordan using a standardized and validated pharmaceutical care manual.
Main outcome measure: Drugs associated with different types of TRPs.
Results: Ultimately, 2,747 patients, with a total of 10,672 TRPs, were included in the study. The medication groups most commonly associated with TRPs were cardiovascular (53.0%), endocrine (18.1%), and gastrointestinal (7.7%) drugs. The most common specific drugs associated with TRPs from any category were atorvastatin (12.5%), metformin (8.5%), simvastatin (6.2%), and enalapril (5.9%). Cardiovascular medications were the most common drugs implicated with multiple subtypes of TRPs – most commonly, allergic reaction or undesirable effect (88.5%), drug product not available (87.3%), safety interaction issues (81.8%), a need for additional or more frequent monitoring (78.0%), and more effective drugs available (77.2%). Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia were the most common diseases associated with different subtypes of TRPs.
Conclusion: The present study identified high-risk drugs for TRPs, which can be used as identification of targeting approach TRPs. Such an approach would improve care provided to patients and can inform health care policies.
Keywords: drug related problems, drug therapy problems, high alert medication, Jordan, pharmaceutical care, treatment related problems
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